Involving of Materials Modelling as well as Engineering Simulation into business decision to develop and manufacture new products, perform novel multi-functional materials and systems, study and analyze the life-cycle performance and properties of engineering structures are considered as a European Science & Technology strength. Industry needs to use modelling tools and approaches for digital analyse of materials, products and manufacturing process, which allow varying some parameters to find the optimal product properties, design and characteristics. Integration of materials modelling to solve the industrial problem is the focus of European Materials Modelling Council (EMMC). The modelling and digital analysis offers unique insight into properties and in-service behaviour of materials, manufacturing process and understanding of the physics of materials, devices and processes. On the other side, modelling reduce product development time as well as costs and hardware for testing .
Materials modelling as well as digital twins are important parts of the modern business decision making. However, they need far more implementation and use in manufacturing industry to reap their full economic impact. Unfortunately, it is the big issue to find the bridging between the industrial challenges and scientific/ academic innovations, needed for the realisation of the industrial tasks.
How industry, especially SMEs, can find the modelling specialists or suitable modelling workflow to solve the concrete applied problem? Who can give the information regarding the costs of the modelling implementation and economic benefits from the modelling projects? The translation of industrial case into modelling solution is performed by Translators. They are primary players at the interface between industrial end-users on the one hand and software owners and modellers on the other hand. Translators support the usage of materials modelling in industrial R&D to the same level as experiments are used today.
The challenges and possibilities for wider industrial adoption of modelling and engineering simulations are discussed in the talk. The EMMC Materials Modelling Translation concept is presented and explained in details.
Dr. Natalia Konchakova is a Senior Scientist at the Magnesium Innovation Centre MagIC of the Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht - Centre for Materials and Costal Research, and Vice-Leader of the Working Group Translators of the European Materials Modelling Council (EMMC). She works in the field of Materials Modelling and Simulation of Lightweight Metal/ Fibre-Reinforced Polymer Composites Structures, Computation analysis of material damage and surface degradation due to corrosion and intensive mechanical loading as well as numerical prediction of crack propagation in engineering structures. Development of the European Materials Modelling Translation concept is the focus of the current activity of Dr. Konchakova.
Mario J. Felice
Ford Motor Company, Global Manager of Powertrain NVH & Systems CAE Dept.
“Providing the Transformational Means to a New Era of Sustainability and Mobility Automotive Application to the Simulation of Powertrain NVH (Noise, Vibration & Harshness)”
The automotive engineering community is now confronting the largest technological transformation since its inception. Recent advancements related to the electrification of powertrains for more efficient consumption and cleaner emissions, the reinvention of the battery with fast wireless charging capabilities to fully replace the current fuel driven vehicles and finally the advent of fully autonomous vehicles.
The car as we know it today will totally change! It will have a so-called “soul” and will be an extension of your personality which you can talk to, can read your face and lips, and would know your mood and feelings as it transports you from point A to point B. The whole concept of passenger transportation is being transformed into a Safer, Healthier and Smarter Environment.
The challenges ahead for automotive engineers are enormous and SIMULATION will be playing a very important role in delivering these Smart Vehicles in a very demanding Smart World.
Mr. Felice is Global Manager of Powertrain NVH CAE engineering at Ford Motor Company. He heads a large team of well over 100 CAE engineers located in North America, Europe, Australia and India.
He’s responsible for all the analytical support of Ford’s global powertrain development programs with the goal of delivering best NVH refinement with respect to Smoothness, Quietness and Sound Quality.
Mr. Felice has been employed with Ford Motor Company for over 40 years. During this time he's held a number of positions specializing in design and analysis of engine components and sub-systems, as well as full powertrain system.
He has published and presented at many international symposiums and conferences and earlier this year he’s been elected member of the NAFEMS Council (Board of Directors). NAFEMS is the International Society for Simulation Engineering.
Mr. Felice holds degrees in Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from the Fairleigh Dickinson University (New Jersey) and Masters of Science in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Michigan.
CNH Industrial, Head of Design Analysis and Simulation and Material Engineering
“The future of Simulation in Agricultural Machinery towards 2050!”
CNH Industrial (CNHi) is a global leader in the capital goods sector that designs, produces and sells agricultural and construction equipment, trucks, commercial vehicles, buses and specialty vehicles, in addition to a broad portfolio of powertrain applications. Specifically, in the agriculture business CNHi represents one of the major full-line manufacturer which produces, with different brands, all the following products: Tractors, Planting & Seeding, Application equipment, Harvesting machines, Tillage tools, Windrowers, Mowers and Conditioners, Forage Harvesters and Blowers, Balers, Loaders and Attachments, Utility vehicle, Advanced Farming Systems and other products.
In the last decades, the agricultural machinery market has become highly competitive and the manufacturers of agricultural equipment have been pushed to continuously innovate their products, increasing the performances, the quality and reliability of their machines. We have seen that ‘digital simulation’ can accelerate the process of the Agricultural Machinery Design and improve the machine performances. For this reason, at CNHi we have introduced the digital approach in all the phases of the new product development process, with the goal to simulate digitally the whole Product and its performances. Our design team, starting from the early stage of the new product design, develops the complete digital representation of the Product (Digital Mock-Up) and the Plant (Virtual Manufacturing). Another big step is to identify the vehicle mission in order to reproduce on the test bench the different manoeuvres that the test engineers perform in the field (from the field to the bench). Finally, the simulation team reproduces on computer all the vehicle missions on the computer (going from ‘the bench to the math’). At this point we need to able simulate in accurate way all the range of operations and conditions that machines must perform in field. For this reason, a big area of our simulation team is dedicated to simulating the different seeds, soils and crops (in various stages of being processed), that can change their properties depending on the location and seasonal conditions. In fact, the variability of these properties can have a strong influence on the machine performances.
Having the ‘complete digital model’ of the new product, the Virtual Reality Centre has become the place where all the stakeholders of the product platform team executes the design reviews, analyses alternative solutions and deliberates product and process solutions. Using the immersive virtual environment (VR simulators), we can include in the design loop also members of the Brand & Marketing, Customers & Dealers that can evaluate the product features some years before the market launch of the new product.
The expected benefits of using Virtual Simulation are, therefore, the reduction of development time (it enables the concurrent engineering), the reduction of development costs (better design through virtual pre-checks, less modifications and less physical tests) and the quality increase (a product that fits perfectly with customer requirements).
Gennaro is the Simulation and Material Engineering world-wide responsible for CNH Industrial.
From 2014 to 2016 he was the Responsible of Innovation Department for all CNH Industrial Sectors and at the same time President of ALTRA SPA, Center of Excellence for the study of ALternative TRActions.
From 2008 to 2014 he covered the role of simulation director for agricultural and construction machinery at Fiat Industrial.
From 2006 to 2008 he worked at the Centro Ricerche Fiat as head of the "Intersectorial Methodology Innovation Master Plan". From March 1990 to June 2006 he worked in the area of Research & Development of the FCA (Fiat Chrysler Automobile) with increasing responsibility roles.
In 2000 he was CEO of the PRODE Consortium (Product Design) composed of ELASIS (FCA) and the University of Naples Federico II, and President of the SCIRE Consortium, composed of ELASIS and the University of Rome Tor Vergata. During the same period he held the position of Adjunct Professor of "Automobile Construction and Industrial Standardization" at the "Second University of Naples" and the "University of Naples Federico II" for about 10 years. He graduated in electronic engineering at the University of Naples Federico II.
From 2016 he is a member of the Board of Directors of the CRIT research consortium on behalf of CNH Industrial and President of the regional section of the GDF association (FIAT Director Group).
From 2017 he is in the Mentor Board of the ASTER, which is the Consortium for innovation and technology transfer of Emilia-Romagna region.
University of Applied Sciences Kempten, Professor of Advanced Driver Systems and Coordinator of the Master´s Course
Prof. Dr. Schneider is sponsored Professor of Advanced Driver Systems and coordinator of the newly founded Master´s Course at the University of Applied Sciences Kempten.
Prof. Dr. Schneider studied Mathematic and Physic at the Technische Universität München, Germany, concluding with a diploma in 1995 and a Doctor rer.-nat., Mathematics and Computer Science in 2000. His first industry position was with Infineon Technologies AG where he worked as a development engineer in the department of Advanced Technology Software.
From 2001 – 2003, Prof. Dr. Schneider was with Axxom Software AG where he designed and developed mathematical optimization methods as a Senior System Analyst. Furthermore, he worked as Methods Engineer at BMW AG where he was concerned with Process, Method and Tool for Functional and Software Development, for Modeling Multi-domain Physical Systems, in particular with the programming language Modelica.
University of Manchester, School of Computer Science, Professor of Computer Architectures
“Will your software need to change for exascale? The challenges on power efficient hardware”
Prof. John Goodacre holds a Professorship in Computer Architectures in the School of Computer Science at the University of Manchester while also being the Director of Technology and Systems in the Research Group at ARM Ltd and is co-founder and Chief Scientific Officer at Kaleao Limited. His career has included the realisation of the first scalable commodity telephony platform, the introduction of the first real-time collaboration tools shipped in Microsoft Exchange 2000, while more recently, was responsible for the design and introduction of the ARM MPCore multicore processor and associated technologies. His roles today extend across both academic and industrial research topic, focused around web-scale servers, exascale efficient systems and ubiquitous computing, while also driving forwards the technological vision for the Kaleao systems roadmap. This gives him a unique hardware and software background with experience from embedded to the largest of big data and HPC systems. He sits on various advisory boards at both national and European level and is a frequent conference speaker.
Co-design di componenti colati e forgiati | Come il dialogo con i fornitori può migliorare la qualità e le performance dei vostri prodotti
Il seminario (della durata di 3 ore) ha lo scopo di illustrare le dinamiche dei processi produttivi fusori e di deformazione plastica dei metalli, nonché alcune tecniche di progettazione e ottimizzazione integrate mirate alla realizzazione del componente secondo le specifiche di capitolato.
The three-hour workshop (in the Italian language) will illustrate the dynamics of the foundry and metal forming production processes, as well as some integrated design and optimization techniques targeted at the realization of a component according to its technical specifications.
Exascale Computing Workshop: Experiences and Best Practices for Porting Applications to Emerging HPC Architectures and Platforms
This workshop aims to provide a forum for vanguard users and developers in the HPC arena to share their experiences and achievements around the various European platforms developed by the ExaNeSt, ExaNoDe, Ecoscale and EuroExa projects.
Whether you are designers of new hardware architectures or system components; software or application developers; or users that need to exploit these massive processing capacities, everyone has something valuable to contribute to the discussion in the development of this next frontier of HPC.
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) Workshop
This workshop will demonstrate how companies can leverage state-of-the-art GD&T methods and instruments to create more robust hi-tech products while containing production costs.
It will present the best methods and instruments available to identify the ideal compromise between the Designer’s demands to meet the end-product requirements, and Manufacturing’s need to rapidly and cost-effectively produce and assemble the components.
Industria 4.0: Valorizzare gli investimenti con competenze e tecnologie software di Industrial Analytics. Come utilizzare i dati per accrescere la competitività delle imprese 4.0
Le indicazioni che ci si propone di fornire ai partecipanti alla Tavola Rotonda vogliono essere un tentativo di dare delle risposte alle classiche domande che si pongono imprenditori e manager: Di cosa si sta parlando? Perché dovrei farne uso? Chi e come impiega già queste soluzioni? Come potrei applicarle? Quanto mi costerà farlo e quanto sarà il rendimento di questo investimento? Quali competenze strategiche sono irrinunciabili in questa fase?
This panel discussion will take place in the Italian language.
Multiple redundancies in the current use of CAE analysis, the lack of priority criteria among physics and the concurrent run of disjointed models, lead to time and cost-consuming loops and reworks, late design changes and significant loss of data, increasing with number of revisions.
A stepwise approach was adopted to implement a collaborative simulation workflow. The analysis started with an assessment of CAE use, objectives and issues definition, gaps towards a desired state.
A multi-physics workflow was defined, spanning from requirements to design validation. The use of parameters was enhanced. Emerging practices were experimented on test-cases in+A1:J9cluding thermo-mechanical, electromagnetic and fluid-dynamic phenomena. When mastered, the workflow is expected to scale rapidly and improve the way products are designed and developed.
Thermo-Mechanical Optmimization for Defense Application
Umberto Lecci, Elettronica SPA
The Thermal Management of Electronic Device represents a huge issue when performed into Defense application. The adverse Environmental conditions and the high performance required by the functional requirements, imply to adopt alternative and modern technology in order to satisfy all these aspects, especially if the weight and allowable volume are parameters that have to be lowest as possible, as for the avionic installations. This scenery, already fulfilled by many critical aspects, is furthermore aggravated if the internal device (to be cooled) has to be perfectly aligned respect to nominal axes, see gyroscopic devices. In this paper the design methodology integrated to the additive and thermal technology is described.
Thermal Management of the ALPIDE Space Module for Particle Tracking
Benedetto Di Ruzza, INFN - TIFPA
Roberto Iuppa, INFN - TIFPA
Christian Manea, INFN - TIFPA
Irina Rashevskaya, INFN - TIFPA
Ester Ricci, INFN - TIFPA
Bruno Morana, NanoInSight, Technical University of Delft
Silicon CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) sensors are developed for high-energy physics experiments. MAPS sensors detect charged particles and their use is spreading in the field of nuclear, radiation and medical physics.
MAPS sensors are very thin (50 um) to improve their energy resolution and are made by cost-effective commercial CMOS technology.
The ALPIDE MAPS sensor was developed at CERN for ALICE ITS Upgrade and has been recenty proposed for space applications.
Major design issues concern the thermal management of power produced by the array of chips in the ALPIDE module.
Therefore, by exploiting ANSYS thermo-structural simulations, we discuss how to deal with the thermal problem,
the module design and its integration with light-weight/high-thermal conductance composite Carbon Fiber
Reinforced Plastics (CFRPs). The ALPIDE space module will be built and integrated into a new Chinese Seismic Electromagnetic Satellite in the near future.
Shaped charge: a comparative study of jet penetration into a multi-layered target
The shaped charge is a particularly effective tool applied in various industrial fields. In specific, it is required whenever holes or cuts in hard-to-work materials need to be generated, or in the case that technical crew cannot directly intervene for practical reasons or because of dangerous working environments such as demolitions and mining excavations. The core of this type of device is represented by a metallic liner which, following the detonation of the surrounding explosive, is rapidly deformed and projected against the target. The possibility to simulate the entire phenomenon using dedicated FEM solvers enables to get an insight into the physics of penetration and, thus, to earn an increase in design accuracy. The study presented in this paper is aimed at showing a comparison between the results gained by means of two consolidated commercial solvers, LS-DYNA and ANSYS Autodyn, detailing the peculiarities of the meaningful settings of the cases
Advanced Engineering Solutions
Practical Techniques for Design Optimization of Lattice Structures
The additive manufacturing (AM) industry continues to grow with new machines, faster processes and a large selection of materials. As design practitioners, we are rambling to unleash the full potential of AM. Lattice structures are very effective for lightweight structural panels, energy absorption devices, thermal insulation and porous implants. An overview of the currently available generation techniques for beam (i.e. diamond) and shell (i.e. gyroid) lattice structures will be presented.
This presentation will also demonstrate how to combine Sub-Divisional surface modeling, Topology Optimization and Lattice Structure generation tools to generate optimum designs. Examples of light weighting helicopter components using lattice structures and Additive Manufacturing will be presented. An example of weight reduction of an avionics heat exchanger without sacrificing any thermal performance will also be presented
Combining Adjoint Optimization and mesh morphing for CFD applications
Ubaldo Cella, Design Methods
Marco Evangelos Biancolini, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”
This paper aims to investigate the applicability of Adjoint optimization combined with mesh morphing to the industrial practice, by the integration of commonly used commercial simulation software.
Adjoint techniques are efficient optimization methods in terms of accuracy of results and short computational cost, but normally are limited to in-house simulation codes, that allow the calculation of partial derivatives of the observable quantities within the model simulation. Conversely, commercial software such as ANSYS Fluent make available derivatives in function of mesh points, and combined with a mesh morphing tool as RBF Morph, derivatives can be automatically computed in function of design parameters, such the amplifications of the RBF solutions that control the shape of the mesh.
Integrating these software in the optimization platform modeFRONTIER, it becomes possible to apply efficient gradient based optimization algorithms, with the big advantage of a full automatic process integration, and a very short number of design simulations to optimize the objective function. Methodology details and CFD application benchmarks will be illustrated.
Key to Metals AG
Material selection for lightweight design in aerospace and defence engineering workflow
Mariagrazia Vottari, Key to Metals AG
Besides the need for critical material property data for elastic, plastic and non-linear behaviour under various conditions and service temperatures, the defence and especially aerospace industry are characterized by requirements for lightweight design and optimization, as well as for a streamlined and documented design and engineering workflow.
The paper describes two components which in synergy provide the possibility to achieve these objectives. One is access to big material data, as a combination of public and companies’ private material properties databases, where the latter needs to organize internal material information, guidelines and experimental data, in a flexible, configurable and integrated way. The other are tools for comparing and analysing material properties and their ratios, which enable their accurate selection and optimization, most notably for weight, and in addition, combined with possibilities to analyse material replacement and reverse engineering.
RINA Consulting SpA
FSI optimization of industrial airplanes: the P180 Avanti EVO study
Corrado Groth, University of Rome "Tor Vergata"
Marco Evangelos Biancolini, University of Rome "Tor Vergata"
Varvara Asouti, National Technical University of Athens
Kyriakos Giannakoglou, National Technical University of Athens
Ivan Spisso, CINECA
Claudio Arlandini, CINECA
Alessandro Sabellico, CNR
Massimo Bernaschi, CNR
Giorgio Travostino, Piaggio Aerospace
Riccardo Morasso, Piaggio Aerospace
Aniello Cozzolino, Piaggio Aerospace
We describe the procedure for the optimization of the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) carried out for the P180 Avanti EVO vehicle, designed and manufactured by Piaggio Aerospace, performed in the framework of the Experiment n. 906 of the FORTISSIMO 2 research project. In particular, the effect of a set of modifications of the winglet shape, that were applied by means of a mesh morphing technique based on the use of radial basis functions, was numerically investigated adopting the mode superposition approach. The CFD analyses were carried out with both commercial (CFD++, ANSYS Fluent) and open-source (SU2) solvers employing the cross-platform FSI solver implemented in the RBF4AERO suite.
Development of a software application for comparative manufacturing costs analyses
Francesco Paolo Micchetti, EnginSoft SpA
Aeronautical industries, with particular reference to those dealing with composite components production, are continuously seeking ways to optimize the cost of the final product and, as consequence, the cost of manufacturing processes, aiming at an increase of efficiency, needed due to the high costs of raw materials involved as well as to the introduction of new flyable and auxiliary materials.
In this scenario, raises the need of a software application able to make fast comparisons between different alternative manufacturing processes, in a flexible way with the aim to shorten times needed for feasibility analysis.
Assessment of no-tension masonry-like structures using the Straus7 API
An energy-based approach is presented to perform the analysis of 2D and 3D no-tension masonry-like structures exploiting the API of the FEM software package Straus7. Masonry is replaced by a suitable equivalent orthotropic material with spatially varying elastic properties and negligible stiffness in case of cracking strain. A non-incremental algorithm is implemented to define the distribution and the orientation of the equivalent material, minimizing the potential energy so as to achieve a compression-only state of stress for any given compatible load. The proposed method captures collapse mechanisms predicted by limit analysis, without any a-priori hypothesis regarding the collapse mode. Applications are shown addressing vaulted masonry structures subjected to settlements and masonry walls with openings acted upon by dead loads and both in-plane and out-of-plane seismic loads. The Research Grant “Fondazione Cariplo 2017-0317” is gratefully acknowledged.
Sapienza University of Rome
Finding Shanley critical load under fire
Franco Bontempi, Sapienza University of Rome
One of the most difficult and delicate structural issues concerns construction cases subject to accidental actions such as fire. In these cases, the high temperatures that develop deeply modify the material behaviors and change the mechanical characteristics and the response of the structure. Variations in stiffness and resistance can carry out to complex instability phenomena. The cases of instability presented in this work refer to steel structures subject to high temperatures whose instability phenomena that may occur in the inelastic range considering the effects of initial imperfections and large displacements. This paper presents an introduction on the theoretical aspects underlying the phenomenon and further case studies with the aid of the Straus7 FEM software.
Cross passage – temporary and permanent structures opening in soil like materials
Generally speaking, cross passages associated with transportation tunnels, especially metro tunnels, are constructed to connect the two running-tunnels at prescribed intervals to meet safety requirements during service stage of the tunnels; and like the running tunnels themselves, the cross-passages are often located in difficult ground and under the groundwater table as well as in urban congested environment. Therefore, the design and construction of cross passage is usually a very challenging task. This paper presents a particular design and construction method devised by the authors to optimize the opening of cross passages, It is a flexible and yet practical solution, involving either ground improvement by means of jet-grouted columns executed from the ground surface, or by ground freezing executed from the running tunnels, or a combination of both techniques, depending on the access conditions, if a cross passage is to be built in a sand-dominant strata, or the dewatering technique executed from the already-excavated running tunnels if a cross passage is to be built in clayey soils . The main aims of ground improvement are to firstly create an impervious layer around the cross-passage to be built and to strengthen the mechanical properties of the surrounding ground. Such a solution is regarded as an optimization that can be readily applied in different types of soil conditions, even difficult ground conditions like the so-called mixed-face condition. Furthermore, the proposed method foresees the installation of temporary steel frames, called the “half-moon solution”, to ensure the stability of intersection between the cross passage and the running tunnel and to provide a safe work condition for the cutting of the segmental lining and opening of the cross passage. The application of the presented design-construction method is illustrated with a recent case history. For the verification of the stability and effectiveness of both the installed supports and ground surrounding a cross passage to be built by applying the proposed design-construction methodology, the commercial software STRAND7 has been used. Specifically, a 3D model is developed by using Finite Elements 2D (plates) that simulate concrete segmental lining Finite Elements 3D (bricks) that simulate both upper and lower steel beams; elastic springs (compression only) for the interaction between soil and segmental lining, 1D beam elements for the steel columns and 3D brick elements for the concrete collar. Each element (be it made of concrete or steel) is defined in the calculation model with the physical and mechanical characteristics of materials used. As regards the interaction between the segmental rings, the connection has been simulated by means of dowel elements, which follows an elastic-plastic regime to model the connection behaviour. Further, the behaviour of these elements is also governed by both actual curves of shear force / displacement and pull-out force / displacements which are derived from the results of the laboratory tests provided by the supplier of the connecting dowels.The friction between the lining rings is simulated using point-contact elements.The interaction between segmental linings and concrete collar is simulated with rigid connection elements capable of transmitting only normal stress (without any shear component) and avoiding any interconnection.The 3D structural analysis, based on bedded spring beam model, is used to assess the membrane forces acting on both the temporary steel frame and the permanent RC collar. And, a 3D model is developed using plate-spring elements: this method involves the simplification of the liner soil-structure interaction. The stiffness of the ground reaction is based on a modulus of subgrade reaction (K), which can be calculated by different methods: for this analysis, the method of Galerkin (Bowles, 1982) is selected and used. The interaction between the segment and the upper and lower steel beams is modelled in STRAND7 through "connection elements”, evenly distributed, able to transmit only axial and shear forces to the temporary steel frame. The entire shear force is then used for dimensioning such connections (bolts with epoxy resins or with similar characteristics). Here below is a list of the loads that can be considered in the modelling, where and when applicable:• ground loads (include all types of loads from ground and rock wedges);• water loads (considering max and min water table location);• train live loading;• equipment and superimposed loading for tunnel fit-out;• earthquake loading;• loads from interfacing structures like CP opening;• loads arising from redistribution of forces at openings;• lining self-weight;• fire load;• invert base slab;• future development loads;• creep loads;• accidental loads (machine hitting temporary structure);• blast load.During construction, before demolition of the segmental tunnel lining, a temporary steel frame should be set up at the junction of the CP with the running tunnel constructed usually by TBM. This temporary supporting steel frame provides the required stability of the junction zone on the re-distribution of the ground stress at the junction and safety on the work. This temporary steel structure should be of proper rigidity and stiffness in order to minimize ground deformation. The excavation of the cross passage shall start once the steel frame is set up. After this phase, the concrete collar shall be realized and, as soon as the concrete has hardened, the temporary steel structure will be removed. This construction sequence is followed step by step in the numerical modelling. A non-linear phase analysis is carried out to define the maximum stresses acting in the structural elements. Subsequently, the structural verification of the segmental lining, temporary steel structure (beams and columns), concrete collar and all the connecting elements (bolts and welding) are carried out. As demonstrated by the successful case history described in the paper, the proposed design-construction method is very effective and not difficult to implement. Furthermore, the experience also shows that in order to ensure a successful application of the proposed methods, it is essential to apply numerical modelling as well in-situ real time monitoring to check the design solution both prior to and during its implementation.
Comparison of Finite Volume and Lattice-Boltzmann Methods’ performance in simulating building wind loads
Eugen Riegel, Numeric Systems GmbH
Increasing importance of numerical simulations in civil engineering makes it crucial to obtain reliable wind load results on designed buildings. While steady state analysis allow to predict behavior of the system at fixed wind conditions, they fall short when predicting so important transient phenomena as effects of vortex shedding or squalls. While Finite Volume methods have provided results for transient simulations of such systems, the speed of calculation was always significantly low due to required fine time discretization. Regardless of utilization of parallel computing calculation of one or two wind passes through computational domain might have taken days or weeks. The answer to this performance problem comes in utilization of Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM). In this paper we compare the computational performance of Lattice-Boltzmann Method to Finite Volume approach applied to a transient wind load analysis of a building design.
Politecnico di Milano
Explicit Lagrangian FEM for 3D Fluid-Structure Interaction Problems
Cremonesi Massimiliano, Politecnico di Milano
Perego Umberto, Politecnico di Milano
This work presents a partitioned fully explicit and fully Lagrangian approach for the efficient simulation of 3D Fluid-Structure Interaction problems. An in-house explicit version of the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM) is used for the fluid domain, while a standard commercial FEM (Simulia Abaqus/Explicit) is employed for the structural domain. All the advanced functionalities of Abaqus/Explicit can be included in the structural model (wide FE library, constitutive relations, contact interactions…). The structure-to-fluid coupling is enforced through the Gravouil and Combescure algorithm: it allows to obtain a strong coupling with arbitrarily large interface displacements using nonconforming space and time discretizations in the different domains. The coupled approach is particularly interesting because of the fully Lagrangian description, which is effective in the simulation of FSI problems with free surface flows and large structural displacements, and because of the fully explicit coupled solver which can be an efficient choice in large-scale engineering problems with fast dynamics and/or an high degree of non-linearity.
Seismic safety Analysis of a base-isolated LNG tank
This paper reports about the seismic risk computation of a representative liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank isolated at its base level with two types of seismic isolation systems: Lead-Core Elastomeric Bearings and sliding bearings.The fragility analysis of the LNG tank is then performed by consolidated analytical and numerical tools. The seismic risk is finally computed by considering an hazard function related to a medium seismicity site with two different extended PDFs (truncated and not truncated).The problem is solved numerically by means of a detailed finite element model, taking into account fluid-structure interaction effects.The Finite Element Modeling (FEM) strategy which was used to simulate dynamic response of the liquid tank system was described and the FEM was validated using a set of manual calculation which is used in available design guidelines. The isolation systems are modeled as non-linear spring-dashpot elements with properties calculated on the basis of data obtained from the literature.The seismic excitation considered is an artificial accelerogram compatible with the Italian code provisions (NTC2018).Results concerning base shear force, sloshing vertical displacement and deflection of the container are presented. In order to measure the effectiveness of the isolation systems, percentage reductions of the peak response of all mentioned quantities are calculated using the non-isolated tank as reference.Finally, the reliability-oriented cost-benefit optimization for structural base isolation components in the so-called one-level approach was investigated. Acceptibly safe structures are determined by the LQI-approach (Life quality Index ). Optimization is performed from the public’s and the owner’s point of view.
Politecnico di Milano
Advanced automated procedure for the fatigue characterization of welded steel joints
Fatigue is a common failure in steel structures with welded joints; these, being their weakest parts, require accurate analysis verification.In this work a tool is developed coupling the accuracy of finite elements hot-spot stress method with international standard prescriptions into an automated numerical procedure for the fatigue characterization of welded steel joints. The tool analyses all the potential fatigue crack locations and provides in output the fatigue endurance of the welded structure under the different loading conditions. Being the numerical procedure of general validity, it can be extended to any structural welded configuration simplifying the verification process. The innovative way of performing fatigue analysis allows to gain competitive advantage, increase design quality, reduce project lead time and optimize product cost.
FSC ENGINEERING SRL
Fire behavior of self-supporting automated warehouses
Gian Paolo Chiarelli, Fincon Italia Consulting Srl
Samuele Sassi, FSC Engineering Srl
Carlo Andrea Castiglioni, Fincon Italia Consulting Srl
Paolo Pietro Setti, Politecnico di Milano
Self-supporting automated warehouses, used in industrial facilities to optimize storage spaces, is a goal of structural engineering, which combines the structural efficiency of metal construction with handling systems. The main construction feature is to produce thin, lightweight metal profiles, which allows a limitation of weight, cost and assembly time, but it makes them vulnerable to the action of fire due to loss of stability. Therefore, these metal profiles are also difficult to protect with the traditional passive fire protection systems because of their unfavourable critical section factors and critical collapse temperatures. National regulations and international standards for fire safety generally require a minimum fire resistance performance for structural elements and a verification of collapse procedures to prevent damage to adjacent structures. It is optional for the client to equip these warehouses with active fire protection systems (sprinkler etc.), in correspondence with the activity carried out. The presence of an active fire protection system inside the warehouse strongly limits any structural damage. In this article, two case studies are done for fire behaviour analysis of self-supporting automatic warehouses with presence and absence of active fire protection systems. After defining the possible fire scenarios, a series of fluid dynamic analyses are conducted with CFD models (by FDS software) to evaluate the dynamics of the fire and the temperatures on the structural elements. Then, the heat response of the structure is investigated through non-linear analyses with FEM models (by Straus7® software) for the evaluation of the possible collapse mechanisms of warehouse structure.
University of Salento
Managing Critical Infrastructures with BIM: integrating the Analytical model
Mariarita De Rinaldis, University of Salento
Sandro Gori, EnginSoft SPA
Giorgio Zavarise, Polytechnic of Turin
Critical Infrastructures requires integrated management approaches, during their whole lifecycle, to achieve optimized strategies for users safety, structural damage prevention and sustainability. Some of the major challenges are disaster management issues, that need to be handled via a multidisciplinary approach, integrating civil and management engineering but also psychology. A numerical simulation model can, in fact, simulate occupants behaviour during an evacuation. BIM is a holistic approach, that has reached a good maturity level in design and construction phases, but its potentialities in lifecycle management are still unexpressed. The integration of numerical analysis is a weakness of the current standards and BIM software tools, due to interoperability issues and to the lack of knowledge sharing. This contribution explores current methodologies, benefits and weaknesses of the integration of numerical simulations into the complex context of critical infrastructures management.
Giovanni Di Sciascio
Studio Di Sciascio Srl
Use of the pushover method for the seismic analysis of mixed frame-wall structures
The study of the seismic behavior of buildings with a mixed frame-wall structure puts the designer in front of important conceptual problems, such as the verification of the connections between the different construction elements, as well as the distribution of horizontal actions among the resisting walls and the torsional deformability due to the eccentricity between center of stiffness and center of mass. The proposed solution consists in implementing the suite of calculation (Straus7) with an Add-on that executes non-linear static analysis (Pushover analysis) for reinforced concrete buildings, with the following features: • Calculation of non-linear reinforced concrete slabs and walls modeled with Plate/Shell elements according to the Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) for slab elements and the Disturbed Stress Field Model (DSFM) for wall elements (models developed by Prof. Frank Vecchio, University of Toronto). • Possibility to perform non-linear analysis of mixed wall-frame structures, in which it is possible to combine, through the sub-modeling technique, the nonlinearity of Straus7 with the secant stiffness formulation of the smeared crack models implemented for walls and slab elements. • Possibility to perform multimodal pushover analysis, whose load distribution is continuously updated during the analysis, to reflect the progressive stiffness degradation of the structure. This solution offers both computational support in dealing with non-linear analyses of buildings, and a great versatility, integrating into the environment of a "general purpose" computer program such as Straus7. The report will illustrate in more detail the theoretical-practical aspects associated with the functionalities listed above, accompanied by examples of two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures.
Roman Martín Martín
Construction process and cracking of a tunnel, sequential analysis and the actions of the influence of buildings over subways: examples with CivilFEM code
Ronald Siat Caparros, Ingeciber S.A.
To analyze complex models from the Civil Engineering field, such as Bridges, Dams, Skyscrapers, Nuclear Power Plants, or any other major infrastructure, a dedicated software has to be used in order to have full post-processing capabilities and orient powerful solvers like the ANSYS solver to the Civil Engineering field of activity. We propose examples like the construction process and cracking of an urban highway tunnel, train sheds and station shafts, a sequential analysis of a tunnel and the actions of the influence of buildings over subways. They all have been realized with the help of CivilFEM, developed by INGECIBER S.A.
Francesco Del Viva
Analysis and verification procedure for wooden panels structures by a general purpose FEM code
Gerardo Masiello, SMStrutture
The theme of the wooden structures, and in particular of the wood panel structures (cross-lam, platform, etc.) for their massive use for the realization of "green" structures, in both public (school, gymnasiums) and private buildings, has been increasingly relevant in the last few years. The paper aims to outline the path that leads to a correct modelling of this structural typology through the tools that FEM Strand7 code makes available. The various aspects of the design of wood panel structures will then be illustrated, which can be listed below: - Schematization of the structural problem: the wooden structure as a box element; - Aspects related to the ductility of the constructive system; design in the hierarchy of the resistances; choice of the behaviour factor; - Modelling of the wall panel and of the connections using the equivalent stiffness method; - modelling of floors and wall connections; - Verification of panels and connections. In the end, some tips will be provided for the automation of the modelling and verification processes through the use of the Strand7 API.
Maffeis Engineering SpA
One Single Model: a new parametric approach to Megastructures
Fabio Ceccato, Maffeis Engineering S.p.A.
Maffeis Engineering proposes an innovative approach for the design of Megastructures: One Single Model. This new and challenging approach allows designer, architects and engineers to work together, sharing information, data and a 3D model between different departments with a reduction in cost, time, effort and loss of data and information.
International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering - CIMNE
Kratos multiphysics embedded CFD technology for engineering applications
Rubén Zorrilla, International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering - CIMNE
Riccardo Rossi, International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering - CIMNE
Roland Wüchner, Chair of Structural Analysis, Technical University of Munich - TUM
During the last decades, unfitted methods, such as the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) or the Embedded Boundary Method (EBM), have become a powerful alternative to traditional body-fitted formulations. These unfitted approaches decouple the fluid domain mesh from the geometry of the immersed object. On the one hand, this feature allows to reduce the mesh generation bottleneck when dealing with “dirty” input files (e.g. .stl). On the other hand, the mesh distortion and degeneration associated to large boundary movement are completely avoided. Their weak point is that they may lack accuracy compared to body-fitted solvers. This work aims to present some engineering applications, mainly related to transportation and wind engineering, that take advantage of such interesting features within the Kratos Multiphysics (https://github.com/KratosMultiphysics) framework.
PASS/HYDROSYSTEM - new opportunities of multiphase flow simulation in piping networks
Leonid Korelstein, Truboprovod
The paper presents the new features which are included recently in PASS/HYDROSYSTEM piping flow analysis software, and allow to calculate 3-phase (water/oil/gas) flow in piping networks. The improved features of gas/liquid flow analysis are also described
Usage of derivative-free optimization in PASS/HYDROSYSTEM piping network flow analysis software
Leonid Korelstein, Truboprovod
Vasily Kulik, Truboprovod
The experience of usage of modern derivative-free optimization methods (BOBYQA and POUNDERS) in PASS/HYDROSYSTEM piping flow network analysis software is discussed on the examples of optimal parameters selection of piping networks
Optimization of Compressed Natural Gas transportation Vessel: Gasvessel project
The GASVESSEL Project, financed by the EU under H2020 and including 13 partners among naval manufacturing companies and research centers, aims to prove the techno-economic feasibility of a new CNG (Compressed natural gas) transport concept, enabled by a novel patented Pressure Vessel manufacturing technology and a new conceptual ship design including safe on- and off-loading solution.
In this paper the scope of the project and the first results obtained by the partners will be presented. In particular, modeFRONTIER is used to optimize the delivery of gas from the identified source locations to the target markets in different scenarios and geographical areas, providing to any project partner through the web-based collaboration platform VOLTA, indications such as optimal ship size, ship speed and fleet size in order to reach the lowest gas transport costs per unit volume.
In addition, modeFRONTIER is also used to optimize the Pressure Vessel size for the winding process, by considering dimensional and technological variables, including optimal cap geometry, weight, thickness of the liner, amount of the reinforcing fibers and plies stacking angles.
University of Genoa, Mechanical Engineering, DIME department
Development of an integrated design platform for general turbomachinery application
Dario Bruna, University of Genoa, Mechanical Engineering, DIME department
The current work covers the development and application of a state of the art tools-set for the design and analysis of a generic turbomachinery component.
The software suite includes 0D, 1D, 2D and 3D tools, a geometry modeler and procedures for parametric analysis.
In house, commercial and open source codes are integrated to allow the user multiple choices for the work-stream definition.
This platform is addressed to different users for:
- optimized or new products development
- technology transfer of advanced turbomachinery concept
- R&D activities
- educational purposes
Example applications are presented to show capabilities and flexibility of the procedure.
University of Rome Tor Vergata
Crack propagation analysis of ITER Vacuum Vessel port stub with Radial Basis Functions mesh morphing
Gabriele D'Amico, Fusion for Energy
Stefano Porziani, University of Rome Tor Vergata
Francesco Giorgetti, University of Rome Tor Vergata
Marco E. Biancolini, University of Rome Tor Vergata
The ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) is one of the most important component of the ITER machine.
The severe operating conditions of the tokamak impose the component to be designed to withstand strong dynamic loads. Due to the not total accessibility of the VV to non-destructive examination (NDE), but also to identify the minimum safe dimension of defects embedded in the component, nuclear codes give useful guidelines for the verification of the design via Fracture Mechanics (FM) analyses.
In this article the application of a new method to evaluate the crack shape evolution during cyclic loadings will be presented. This method use Finite Elements Analysis in conjunction with Radial Basis Function morphing technique for a fast arrangement of the existing mesh to a new configuration.
Brembana & Rolle
CFD analysis of the flow distribution in a Waste Heat Recovery Unit
Thomas Odry, Brembana & Rolle
Marco Rottoli, Brembana & Rolle
Waste Heat Recovery Units (WHRU) are heat transfer equipment used to exploit heat from a high temperature gas stream by heating a heat transfer fluid. WHRUs are often used to exploit heat from a gas turbine exhaust gas stream. Thermal oil can be used as a heat transfer fluid. The gas flow entering the unit is rarely uniform, because of the swirl impressed by the gas turbine and the shape of the WHRU inlet section. The non-uniformity of the gas flow has to be properly analyzed, since it can lead to severe maldistribution and overstress the first tube row, causing damages in the long-term. The use of flow correction devices (perforated plates, guide vanes) can mitigate this issue. This work describes a numerical analysis of a vertical gas path WHRU. The simulation was performed using ANSYS Workbench environment. The solver CFX was used to run the simulation. The influence of inlet ducting shape and swirl flow at the gas turbine discharge section has been investigated in terms of uniformity of the flow velocity approaching the coil section. The necessity of flow correction devices has been also discussed.
Eaton India Innovation Centre LLP
Modified Lumped Modelling approach for simulation of electrical components in Switchgears
Tanmay Tamboli, Eaton India Innovation Centre LLP
Ravindra Padwal, Eaton India Innovation Centre LLP
Amit Khendad, Eaton India Innovation Centre LLP
In electrical switchgears, heat generation due to electrical resistivity, eddy currents and contact resistance results in temperature rise. This temperature rise when exceeds the allowable limits as prescribed in standards will lead to potential damage to electrical devices within the switchgear reducing its life and efficiency. In the recent times, there has been a tremendous impetus towards modelling of switchgears to reduce the design & development cycle time as the requirement of reduced footprint are posing increased challenges to meet the thermal requirements.
A typical Low voltage switchgear consists of many electrical components viz. Busbar, ACBs, MCCBs, Relays, Contactors etc. Detailed modelling of switchgear systems along with these electrical components becomes difficult due to geometrical complexities and meshing constraints .Hence, general practice followed in industry is to model electrical components as lumped heat sources as per catalogues power loss data. This approach though computationally faster, jeopardizes the accuracy of temperature rise predictions as it doesn’t closely simulate the actual physics of heat dissipation from components. Present work aims to develop a new modelling approach that captures the distribution of heat dissipation from/within the component closer to reality. Experimental temperature rise test results of standalone components is used to determine the distribution of heat loss from/within the component. Similar approach is then further extended to system wherein two or more components (e.g. MCCB and Contactor) are coupled in series. This new approach thus helps in improving accuracy without compromising computational time. Simulation results are validated with temperature rise tests. For Standalone system, the correlation coefficient is 0.96 and Absolute Average Deviation (AAD) is <6%; whereas for coupled systems, the correlation coefficient and AAD is found to be 0.90 and < 10% respectively.
SUPSI - Department of Innovative Technologies (DTI)
Design Optimisation of a Thermal Energy Storage System for a Laboratory Scale AA – CAES
Simone Zavattoni, SUPSI - Department of Innovative Technologies (DTI)
Davide Montorfano, SUPSI - Department of Innovative Technologies (DTI)
Maurizio C. Barbato, SUPSI - Department of Innovative Technologies (DTI)
In the context of electric energy management, Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (AA – CAES) plants are a viable alternative to pumped hydro plants in terms of power and storage capacity. Excess of electricity is used to run a compressors train; after compression, the hot air obtained is cooled down, storing the thermal energy in a Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. The high-pressure low-temperature air is then stored into a reservoir (e.g. an underground salt cavern). When electricity is requested, air is extracted from the cavern, heated up recovering thermal energy from the TES and expanded into a turbine-generator unit.
In order to study experimentally the dynamic behaviour of such systems, a laboratory scale AA – CAES was conceived. Due to the high-pressure operation, the TES was engineered following the ASME pressure vessel design rules and a FEM analysis was exploited to assess its structural behaviour. Transient CFD simulations of the TES nominal operation cycle were also integrated in the structural analysis to account for non-uniform temperature distribution. This work presents the TES final design obtained with FEM-CFD synergetic design optimization.
Sensor networks for monitoring and predictive maintenance applications of productive plants
The costs of monitoring and maintenance activities represent between 15% and 60% of the cost of the produced goods.
In this context, even small improvement, for higher efficiency in the related processes, affects the profitability of the plant in the short and medium term.
The primary cause of ineffectiveness in the management of these activities is the lack of field data.
The physical measurements can be acquired through a Wireless Sensor Network that provides the interface with software tool implemented on a web-server for data analysis, making the monitoring system among the most tangible IIoT and Industry 4.0 applications.
The consistent and automated acquisition of the measurements allows for generating the outputs to put into practice a predictive maintenance strategy.
In the document foreseen for submission, the main topics and characteristics of a vertical system for the aforementioned applications will be outlined.
Anomaly detection and remaining useful life (RUL) estimation methods in predictive maintenance
RUL estimation is of particular interest for companies wishing to optimize assets maintenance schedules. In this work we present a method for the analysis of time series relative to two different datasets: in the first case the data come from measurements acquired by sensors from a rotor, while the second one refers to the behavior of a set of machines of the same type over time. The purpose of this work is to predict the status of each machine and its components and identify the anomalies that occur. Associated with the status of each component is the estimation of the remaining useful life that provides information on the time-to-failure. The presented approach is based on data mining and machine learning techniques.
IoT stack to bridge the gap between the Operation technologies and the ICT of the SME’s
SME shopfloors have always been seen as weakly coupled to the companies' ICT systems due to technical and historical reasons. Machineries and work centers are still not fully connected to the rest of the organization, work orders are very often managed on paper, data are collected by hand by the operators and later transmitted to the production control and logistics. Information flows out of the shopfloor manually and often too late to prevent a production mismanagement. Real time monitoring and control of machineries and production may be now achieved using Industrial IoT platforms compliant with the INDUSTRY 4.0 paradigm. Machines’ efficiency can be constantly monitored to prevent shifting and downtimes, while the real time tracing of the production orders allows the organization to be constantly up-to-date with the shipping availability of the products. The two ways integration between the shopfloor and the the rest of the ICT systems such as ERP, MES, CMMS, BI relies on the digital interfaces able to instantly communicate among the two worlds. The presentation offers some examples on how the whole IIoT stack should be able to communicate with the rest of the enterprise’s processes.
Mária Babicsné Horváth
ViveLab Ergo Ltd.
A new chapter in ergonomic simulation
Perception of usability, efficiency and ergonomic risks of industrial workplaces using motion capture and virtual verification.
To ensure that your employees are in top condition and that they can perform their daily tasks without any negative eﬀect, it is crucial to understand the way they operate. How they perform speciﬁc tasks and what risks they may encounter during them. Once all these risks are identiﬁed, one can take actions to make sure they are kept on a minimum level. This can be achieved by introducing alternative solutions that are less demanding for the employee or replaces their eﬀort with automation.
ViveLab Ergo is a cloud-based ergonomic lab, software as a service with 7 built-in ergonomic analysis method and an anthropometric databank. To simulate, analyze and improve the interactions between human, machine and the work environment is more precisely, faster and easier than ever before. The virtual analysis of workstations is also possible yet in the design phase without building a physical prototype.
Thanks to these features, ViveLab Ergo is unique on the market in the field of ergonomic simulation. We would like to share some case studies to introduce the benefits of virtual verification.
The UI: The Other Face of Your Digital Twin
While digital twin is often associated with physical objects, it has even broader applicability to comprehensive systems. These systems are often represented by extremely complex simulations, such as full automobile IVI functions, complex laundry cycles or life-critical medical device operations. These finely tuned simulations provide logical replicas of the system output in numbers, but these are often difficult to interpret into real-world results.
Putting a face to these simulations in the form of a user interface (UI) dramatically enhances their value and makes them accessible to a broad range of users, executives and domain experts. The user interface also allows for dynamic interaction with the simulation as opposed to scripted entry methods, so a more realistic user experience can be examined.
In this presentation, Altia will explore how UIs bring the data of simulations to life. Additionally, they will show the process of connecting a user interface to existing simulations, as well as how the combined model can be deployed to embedded hardware to mimic a production device.
Ozen Engineering, Inc.
Physics Based Simulation Applications in the Semiconductor Industry
Metin Ozen, Ozen Engineering, Inc.
The semiconductor equipment industry supplies tools used to make semiconductors. These tools are process chambers where semiconductors are fabricated under vacuum controlled, temperature controlled, and chemical gas controlled conditions. CFD modeling has proven to be an essential part of chamber design, and advanced simulation capabilities enable engineers to prepare accurate predictive models. Particle physics capabilities track particles that enter semiconductor tools from fluid intake, machined parts, lubricants, or other sources. Porous media capabilities model highly-detailed geometry, like filters and grates using simplified geometry with representative behavior. Chemical species capabilities model concentration distribution of process chemicals within semiconductor equipment and are used to identify or prevent sources of contamination. Virtual reality collaboration enables local and remote stakeholders to interact with complex 3D results data in an immersive environment.
In this talk we present some examples of multi-domain system models that show how, using an advanced system modeling software like MapleSim, it is possible to obtain useful information that can be used to reduce product development risk and costs, and to enable product innovation. Multi-domain systems are characterized by the fact that they couple together components belonging to different engineering domains. As an example, if we consider an electro-hydraulic system we have the following domains: mechanical (both rotational and translational) for the description of the mechanical part of the machine; electrical for the description of the motors, hydraulics for the fluid interaction and signal for the control part. Modeling such domains together in the same modeling environment software can significantly improve the product development process of such machines.
Functional Verification of Complex Engineering Designs using System-Level Modeling
Andy Ko, Phoenix Integration
As engineered products become increasingly complex, manufacturers are forced to rethink their design processes, and there has been a growing adoption of the systems design & development process. This approach provides a framework whereby complex multi-disciplinary systems can be broken down into subsystems to a level of granularity that allows various design teams to focus on their specific contexts then carefully integrate them and verify the outcomes against requirements throughout the process.
In order to reduce the cost and disruption caused by late-stage design changes, there is a lot of attention being paid to processes and tools to help identify and address possible design issues as early in the process as possible. In particular there has been an emergence of Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) tools to manage the vast amount of interrelated design requirements across disciplines, and Model-based Design (MBD) tools to allow engineers to develop conceptual designs of the system to address those requirements.
This presentation will show how MBSE tools manage the design requirements of complex systems in a tightly integrated fashion. This allows for efficient design verification and validation against requirements, throughout the development process. A detailed case-study, using MagicDraw Teamwork Cloud, MapleMBSE and MapleSim, integrated on the ModelCenter platform from Phoenix Integration, will demonstrate how a change in the specified operating conditions for an electric vehicle can be simulated to reveal the impact on the battery design requirements very early in the design process.
Canada National Research Council
Lowering the Risk of Transit Electrification with Informed, Model-Based Strategies
Paul Goossens, Maplesoft
In response to mounting concerns about climate change, many municipalities are working to increase the use of public transit while reducing the carbon emissions generated by their fleets. For many transit authorities, the way forward is creating a smarter fleet electrification strategy that incorporates more electric vehicles while keeping costs low. However, moving to an electric bus system can present serious challenges.
In order to ensure an optimized implementation of electrified bus fleets, the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) worked with Maplesoft to develop a model-based approach to simulate the electrification needs of a public transit authority. By combining virtual prototyping techniques, electrification expertise, and data about actual buses and bus routes, MapleSim Fleet Forward analyzes electric bus behavior under a variety of conditions that allow transit authorities to identify electrification issues before they occur, and make informed decisions.
This presentation will introduce you to a comprehensive set of tools to help transit authorities determine the best electrification strategy for their city. This will include case studies illustrating how a model-based approach that helps transit authorities get environmentally friendly, run an efficient electric fleet, lower risks and ensure rapid return on investment.
Elio De Marinis
ANSYS Twin Builder: the new era of pervasive simulation
Twin Builder is the new Ansys tool to build, validate and deploy complete systems simulations and Digital Twins for Predictive Maintenance. It allows to build system easily and quickly combining the power of a multidomain systems modeler with extensive specific libraries, 3D physics solvers and reduced-order model (ROM) capabilities. In this talk we illustrate how to extract ROM from an Ansys Workbench analysis and how to validate it. After that, we export the ROM file generated as Functional Mock-up Unit (FMU) in the Twin Builder environment and import in a multi-domain system to evaluate its performances on the whole system.
B&R Industrial Automation
Machine-level Virtual Commissioning for On-Time, On-Budget Innovation
Paul Goossens, Maplesoft
Chad Schmitke, Maplesoft
To keep pace with today’s competition, production-machine companies require a delicate balance of innovation and an ability to get their products to market, on time and on budget. However, as modern designs require increasingly complex features and faster delivery schedules, even the best engineers can miss important details.
Developing better design techniques will look different for every company, but many will relate to the challenges of bringing physical hardware together with their control programs. The commissioning process is often a very risky stage in any product’s development. Between reworking designs, over-engineering parts, or an unpredictable time to market, the costs and damage to reputation can be significant. For these reasons, many are adopting a model-based approach to create system-level virtual prototypes of their machines, incorporating mechanisms, actuators, and controllers, and carry out virtual commissioning of the machine very early in the process.
As a technique, virtual commissioning stands to greatly reduce the risks inherent in many new designs, and provides the basis for embedded real-time digital twins that can be used to develop market-leading features in your products. At Maplesoft, we’ve worked with leaders in the automation market to develop strategies that match each customer’s particular design techniques. In this presentation, Maplesoft will show the process of virtual commissioning, highlighting the work they are doing with B&R Automation and Rockwell Automation, and how you can adopt these powerful techniques for your design processes, and beyond.
Virtual ECUs and virtual validation of automotive control functions
The complexity of software and systems in vehicles increases at an extremely fast pace. It is commonly agreed that new methodology approaches to the test and validation of complex systems are required in future in order to deal with this task in a comprehensive and economic way. Fortunately, recent technology advances are opening new perspectives to dealing with this task. Accurate functional integration tests, previously only possible to perform with real prototypes, can now be performed in simulation on low-cost and highly available PCs. This has been made possible by advances from: (a) physical simulation: availability of reality-close vehicle simulation models, and (b) new technology for software integration: virtualization of the ECU functions on PC.
The availability of accurate vehicle simulation on cheap PCs makes possible to use massive simulation for investigating and assessing the behavior of complex dynamic systems. Thousands of simulations running in parallel on PCs can be performed at virtually no cost – compared with the costs of human testers, hardware-in-the-loop platforms and real prototypes. This trends are likely to cause a disruptive change in the way organisations will address the development and test of embedded systems in the near future. We mention three of the expected changes: (i) increasing role of simulation and virtual integration in the organization, (ii) standards for model exchange (FMI), including exchange of virtual ECUs and models among OEMs and suppliers and (iii) a shift away from the naïve practice and understanding of the requirements as “test scripts” - towards a formal representation of requirements as “system invariants”. These necessary and able to support a thorough virtual validation covering a large space of situations and system configurations.
Our presentation will explain in more detail the techniques available for building and integrating virtual ECUs in vehicle simulations. We will also review results of application in several development projects.
Scilab & SimulationX for preliminary design of electric motor
With today’s trend for electric car, every car maker must go back to specifications and preliminary design to replace basic powertrain functions. In order to make this electric car-paradigm a reality, suppliers have therefore to provide car manufacturers with optimal design taking into account new design tradeoffs such as autonomy and power to be delivered.
In this context, ESI has been working with both manufacturers and suppliers of the automotive domain on optimizing the design of electric motors (and associated batteries). Considering that such design requires many geometric changes (number of poles rotor/stator, number of coil’s turns, number of phases, …), Finite Element Analysis (FEA) prove to be inappropriate for large design space exploration on a dynamic model (each simulation taking several hours).
Following clients’ needs, ESI solutions were twofold. First, providing simulation solution for multi-physics static finite element modeling and dynamic system modeling. Second, integrate the solution in Scilab through the Functional Mock-up Interface (FMI) and giving access to the results via a tailored application.
Model reduction and optimization techniques can also be of help in order to take into account the changes in the geometry and the design parameters. Future development will be about interfacing additional external tools & libraries (Octave, Python, …) with Scilab to serve as an integration hub and deployment platform for both academics & industries.
Advanced modelling for industrial process design
Luca Pasquale, Moxoff Spa
Alessandro Di Lucrezia, Geico SpA
In the industrial machinery industry, there is no room for flaws in the design process. This is even more critical in an engineer-to-order context as the following one. The company designs customized painting booths and ovens for the automotive industry. These kinds of machineries are complex systems composed of several interlinked components and the relative design process involves different team of engineers using different spreadsheets. So, the challenge was to enable an integrated design process supported by customized simulation tools. Standard software packages don’t take into account the specific company’s workflow nor relevant problem details. Therefore, a customized web application, running dedicated 1D lumped and thermo-fluid dynamics models, has been developed to solve the reliability vs simplification trade-off. The results: the different engineers teams are coordinated and can evaluate different configurations in terms of costs and performances in a faster and visual way.
Numerical Challenges in Co-Simulation
Martin Benedikt, VIF - Das virtuelle Fahrzeug
Embedded, mechatronic and networked systems require a cross-domain system overview to holistic optimization. General-purpose simulation tools often come to their limits, because required modeling languages or problem-oriented solution algorithms are not available. Typical models are generated and simulated in specific departments using domain-specific simulation tools, so that a simple and lossless porting to another simulation tool is not possible. The co-simulation represents a modern and flexible approach, but has challenges in the numerical integration of the subsystems.
As part of this presentation, the challenges of co-simulation and modular simulation are identified and discussed. In contrast, opportunities and approaches for dealing with these problems and efficient solutions are presented. Finally, these algorithms achieve a maximal performance for continuous co-simulation.
The algorithms and application examples presented were implemented and implemented in model. Connect. The application examples demonstrate the relevance of efficient coupling algorithms in co-simulation and prove the performance of Model. Connect as an industrial ""best-in-Class"" co-simulation platform.
Moving boundary problem in System-level thermal analysis
Recently, the system-level simulation approach is applied to enhance their concept design process. It allows to analyze and optimize the system-wise design parameters. In terms of the thermal analysis, the advantage of using the approach is that the reasonable fidelity models can be simulated efficiently, even in real-time. On the other hand, one of major challenges is how we can express transient physical behavior as a dynamical simulation model, especially about the moving boundary problem. In this presentation, we introduce the modeling method to realize the moving boundary condition with the coarse-discretized model in the system-level simulation for thermal analysis.
1D and 3D coupling: the simulation approach and industrial applications
Simulation tools of 1D networks are easy to use and have fast solving times, however, they don’t always contain all the features needed in system simulations. 3D CFD or Mechanical tools become necessary when components have complex 3D geometry which cannot be characterised in one dimension or in systems where three dimensional flow results are required. However, simulating an entire system in 3D is often computationally expensive: for this reason an hybrid 1D-3D simulation approach is a good compromise. In this contest a multi-physics integration is analysed and applied to different industrial sectors.
A Flywheel cooling design review by means of Flownex
Michele Raciti, Ansaldo Energia
The increasingly diffusion of renewable energy has led to a greater demand of synchronous compensator in order to supply the power electrical grid stability. In this context, to increase electrical machines inertia, they can be coupled to a flywheel that must be appropriately cooled because of the ventilation losses due to the big dimensions and peripheral speed. This work points out the utility of software as Flownex that, as in this case, has allowed to implement and to analyze the internal ventilation circuit of a flywheel. Thanks to it, and further calculation adopting Ansys Fluent, it has been possible to exclude some inefficient solutions basing on flywheel internal cooling system.
Hybrid Twin: A new paradigm for the industry and society4.0 - Enriching technology and humans
Jean Louis Duval, ESI Group
Emmanuelle Abisset, ESI Chair Professor at Centrale Nantes
In the previous industrial revolution, virtual twins (emulating a physical system) were major protagonists. However, usually numerical models (virtual twins) are static, i.e. they are not expected to accommodate or assimilate data. Model Order Reduction techniques opened new possibilities for more efficient simulations. In particular the so-called PGD, consists of calculating offline a parametric solution containing the solution of all possible scenarios. The so-called digital twins allowed for assimilating data collected from sensors with the main aim of identifying parameters involved in the model, anticipating actions. Despite an initial jubilant period, unexpected difficulties appeared immediately. Namely, in practice significant deviations between the predicted and observed responses were noticed. For circumventing these difficulties Hybrid TwinTM embraces three main ingredients: (i) a simulation core able to solve mathematical problems in real-time; (ii) advanced strategies able to proceed with data-assimilation, data-curation, data-driven modelling and (iii) a control mechanism to adapt the model online.
Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
Recovery of Mechanical Energy from fluids for the feeding of an IoT node for monitoring of diesel engine exhaust gases
Vincenzo Mastronardi, Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
Francesco Madaro, Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
Francesco Guido, Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
Massimo De Vittorio, Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
Alessandro Cinciripini, EnginSoft SpA
A system for harvesting of kinetic energy from accessible sources such as body movements, low winds and gas flows, for the power supply of miniaturized daily life apparatus is a very promising research topic for
energetically autonomous Internet of Thing (IoT) devices such as sensors, wireless transmitter, etc. For example, devices based on Flexible polymeric films could be very sensitive to mechanical deformations generated by fluid streams and turbulences, even at very low intensity. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that piezoelectricity on flexible polymers is achievable by depositing a thin film of piezoelectric AlN, sandwiched between metal electrodes with columnar grains coherent through the polycrystalline layers, on Kapton substrates. Finite Element Methods are very useful to optimize the interactions between fluid and piezoelectric flags. Here we show a Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) design of a piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) -based flexible flag, whose deformation due to flow perturbations in an exhaust pipeline, would supply energy to a chemical sensor, for diesel engine-based exhaust by-product, and radio transmitter modulus to car electronic control.
Università del Salento
A cost-effective mobile-based approach for indoor noise pollution monitoring in industrial scenarios
Antonella Longo, Università del Salento
Nicola Gramegna, EnginSoft SpA
Giovanni Pellerino, T4S Srls
The continuous improvement in wireless communications is reshaping the way people interact with portable devices. High computational power, heterogeneous embedded sensors, reliable broadband network infrastructures and smart user interfaces are making smartphones and tablets the de-facto technological enablers for amounts of applications, which range from smart homes to environmental monitoring. Leveraging mobiles to improve life quality by providing new categories of pervasive, smart services is eased also by their high penetration rate into daily life activities and by the high level of familiarization shown by users. In this scenario, mobile devices can be used effectively as powerful sensing nodes, according to a new sensing paradigm named Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS). On the one hand, mobiles overcome the typical communication and deployment limitations of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) by offering wider and more reliable coverage areas as well as greater amounts of deployable nodes. On the other hand, they can measure traditional WSNs up by providing sufficient levels of accuracy thanks to their embedded and/or external pluggable sensors. These advantages have led to multiple application scenarios in smartcities, from road condition assessment to traffic monitoring, from people tracking in large-scale events to environmental screenings, where mobiles are exploited as sensor data sources as well as edge devices with advanced computational capabilities.
The advantages brought by MCS-based monitoring are manifold: pervasiveness, dynamic deployment, contextual awareness, user’s engagement, effective integration with other ICT platforms. From a noise-measurement oriented perspective, mobile devices can enlarge and make more efficient the scope of traditional noise monitoring campaigns, so that the expensive deployment and maintenance of professional metering equipment can be spared for ad-hoc interventions only where the noise levels highlighted by MCS-mediated campaigns are higher than or close to normative thresholds.
On such premises, we propose to address the indoor noise monitoring issue in industrial facilities by applying the MCS paradigm so that the noise exposure of workers moving around machineries can be assessed by leveraging their personal mobile devices without installing expensive and complex professional sound metering equipment. The topic of noisy environments is crucial for the health of workers and it is part of the safety issues a manager must take care of.
Indoor noise monitoring is a pre-requisite of the digital twin for the acoustic comfort in the Factory. The real-time data acquisition from noise sources are input of 3D virtual simulation mapping the noise level at any point of the space to be compared with the acceptable thresholds for workers and visitors in agreement with safety and health regulations.
The digital twin platform of acoustic comfort is the objective of the Venetian regional FORSAL project coordinated by SINFONET network. The platform will be developed and validated in the Foundry environment even though the above mentioned integrated ICT technologies (the digital twin system) are ready for any other industrial contexts.
More specifically, we propose a cloud, microservice-based architecture for managing noise monitoring data coming from mobile phones (thanks to a customized mobile app) and from low-cost noise sensors. The cloud-based backend is in charge of data collection, storage and processing, while the mobile app allows collecting noise measurements thanks to embedded and/or external microphones. The mobile app also offers immediate monitoring features for its users, while the backend provides measurements history and the possibility of localizing the collected measurements. The proposed platform has been already tested with promising results in noise pollution outdoor monitoring, by involving several hundreds of users in different pilot sites (small and medium cities across Italy). However, the indoor industrial scenario significantly differs from the outdoor one and specific challenges have to be coped with. In particular, while measurements collected outdoor can be easily georeferenced by adopting the GPS-based localization feature of any mobile device, industrial facilities exhibit complex indoor environments where non-GPS localization techniques should be used. Additional features such as microphone ad-hoc calibration and safe work organization procedures must be considered as well.
Advanced Engineering Solutions
Conceptual Design tools for Innovation Engineering
Andreas Vlahinos, Advanced Engineering Solutions
This presentation will describe and demonstrate a practical set of computer aided innovation (CAI) tools. These tools assist engineers and manufacturers by increasing their innovation skills. Implementation of these tools generates innovative and disruptive solutions to complex problems. Tools that use the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) to generate innovative ideas for the most difficult engineering and manufacturing challenges will be presented. A Mechanism Synthesis tool that generates, in seconds, several conceptual mechanisms that follow a given path while its supports remain within a given domain will be presented. Interactive Multi-Physics Topology Optimization tools that generate the optimum topology / shape of a component for a given structural, thermal or fluid requirement will be presented. Tools that generate Programmable Materials (meta-materials with predefined properties) will also be discussed.
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare * Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro
Virtual Reality Application in a Nuclear Accelerator Facility
Maurizio Montis, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare * Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro
A nuclear plant, for energy or for nuclear physics, is a complex facility where high level security is mandatory, both for machines and people. But sometimes the status of danger is not correctly felt, inducing workers to misinterpret situations and, as consequence, not act in the best way. At the same time problems related to area accessibility can occur during normal machine operations, limiting actions related to local maintenance and environment supervision. It would be suitable to have the opportunity to perform these tasks in a independently way from environment limitations and machine operations. In order to overcome these limits, we try to apply Virtual Technology to the nuclear physics context. As consequence, this new tool has given us the chance to reinterpret concepts like training or maintenance planning. In this paper the main proof of concept implemented will be described and additional information related to different VR technology usages will be exposed.
University of Rome "Tor Vergata"
The medical digital twin assisted by Reduced Order Models and Mesh Morphing
Emiliano Costa, RINA Consulting SpA
Stefano Porziani, University of Rome Tor Vergata
Simona Celi, Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio
Katia Capellini, Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio
Michel Rochette, ANSYS, Inc.
Valery Morgenthaler, ANSYS, Inc.
Marco Evangelos Biancolini, University of Rome Tor Vergata
In silico analysis tools in the bio-medical field are nowadays moving from the research context to the patient specific treatment and prevention one. Hemo-dynamics is receiving a great attention and an accurate CFD modelling can be adopted to produce a digital medical twin capable to reliably predict pathology evolution and the effect of surgical corrections. The availability of in silico digital twins based on CAE simulations is one of the key enablers; parametric shape of vessels and reduced order models (ROM) are a promising solution. The ROM approach requires HPC to be built but can be consumed almost in real time and also outside from the standard CAE tools. In this paper the concept is demonstrated exploiting the new ROM Builder available in ANSYS 19.1. We developed a pipeline for the aortic aneurysm to study the effect of the bulge shape progression on the flow field. First a patient-specific geometry is reconstructed, then a CFD model is created with a bulge shape parameterised through an RBF mesh morphing technique and, finally, a reduced order model (ROM) is suitably built up carrying our CFD simulations. Examples of fast evaluations achieved off-line by consuming ROM results are provided.
Edge computing on CLOUD architecture: how to make your products smarter by shifting from the big to the small data paradigm
Edge computing is becoming more and more successful as an effective architecture solution to leverage distributed computing capability in the field. Manufacturers may take advantage from it for making their products smarter, by adopting an IoT-by-design approach in order to offer the end user customers a suite of digital services fully integrated with their products. A mix of INDUSTRY 4.0 enabling technologies are suitable for proximity and remote services, as long as computational and communication resources are available at the edge. The presentation highlights some projects' results where products of manufacturing have been enhanced by applying Edge computing proximity services coupled with remote CLOUD services.
EMAK produces machines for gardening, little agriculture and civil construction. It develops its 2 stroke engines for hand held applications like chainsaw, brush-cutter, blower, etc.
One of the main cause of part failure is fatigue from vibration, so engineers need a methodology to better understand what happens in durability/field test. The aim of this work is to explain the strategy developed to estimate life of components in a professional brush-cutter using ANSYS Workbench as an alternative of most popular commercial software. It is a challenging work because it needs interdisciplinary knowledge (signal processing, fatigue on plastic material, vibration mechanics, loss factor estimation, FEA, IT, etc.). The adopted strategy consists essentially of tree steps:
1) Study of the excitation through multibody The model involves not only the crankcase, but also unbalanced rotor, centrifugal clutch, gear transmission and cutting tool. Particular attention is dedicated to the spark advanced management, in order to accurately reproduce the pressure inside the cylinder. It is clearly the main excitation of the system, which varies with the working speed. The model returns the internal reaction forces at bearing supports, which are the loads to be used for any structural and fatigue assessment. 2) Frequency Response Function analysis and validation The stresses over parts are extracted from a linearized FE model in frequency domain, which requires deep validation to become reliable. Calibration data has been measured through experimental modal analysis, performed on both single parts and sub-groups. Particular attention has been spent for the evaluation of the frequency-dependent loss factor of the structure, which is responsible of the magnification factor in case of resonance phenomena. The FE model has been tuned by adjusting contact setup, in order to make the numerical FRF compatible with the experimental one. 3) Fatigue analysis - This task is performed by processing stress data previusly generated by FE models. In order to make the fatigue life prediction reliable, effects of both thermal pre-loads and effective cyclic loads are taken into account. By making massive use of ANSYS APDL commands it has been possible to first build the stress history on all nodes and then evaluate the fatigue loading through the rain-flow counting method. Do to unavailability of experimental fatigue data for the used materials, the stress vs cycles curves (S-N curves) are taken from literature. Fatigue material properties are then lowered to take into account roughness, overall size and surface finishing. Calculation of damage and life has been performed on all nodes and then made available for graphical representation in ANSYS.
The proposed calculation procedure has been optimized to run in a multicore workstation equipped with common hardware. This requested a relevant work to simplify and rationalize the models. The methodology is general and can be replicated for any mechanism undergoing cyclic loads.
Pierburg Pump Technology Italy Spa
Dynamics Simulation and Experimental Validation of a Variable Displacement Vane Oil Pump
The evaluation of internal loads is a key aspect when designing a vane pump since they greatly affect the wear phenomenon. In this work, the load evaluation is performed by a two-step approach. At first, the fluid dynamics is analysed by means of a mono-dimensional GT-suite model representing the oil pump, its accessories and the oil circuit trough the engine. Then, the computed oil pressures are utilized as hydraulic loads in a multibody model developed in ADAMS in order to evaluate the internal components dynamics in terms of mutual forces and relative displacements. Said actions represent the driving force for wear volume estimation. Finally, the dynamics of the internal components is experimentally investigated by movies taken with an high speed camera on a running pump where the front cover is replaced by a clear cover made out a transparent material. This allowed to check the numeric model reliability and provided indications to its further development.
Modeling and simulation of biomechanical human body models in MBS by means of an automatic model generator
While industry standard multibody systems simulation (MBS) allow for complex mechanical models of products (e.g. vehicles), the human operator is neglected or modelled only at low detail, because manual modeling and parametrization of individualized biomechanical Human Body Models (HBM) is a complex and error prune task. But to predict key factors like safety, performance or comfort, realistic user models have to be incorporated in the CAE process. With a human body model wizard (Biomotion Workbench) based on input of body weight, stature and gender HBM models can be automatically generated and imported as sub model in a MBS model. We demonstrate the difference between (re)active HBM compared to pure passive Dummies which are designed for crash tests and do not behave like humans. A second application field of the developed HBM generator is the inverse dynamics analysis in MBS which can be used to optimize products interacting with complex human motion.
Todeschini Mario Srl
Development of a Digital twin for an enhanced performance of an HIL simulator
Hermes Giberti, Università degli Studi di Pavia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione
Francesco La Mura, Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Meccanica
Ivan Raineri, Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Meccanica
The representation of the real world through a digital description or, in other words, a mathematical model implementation in a simulator can be termed as Digital Twin. This can be used to monitor or control a related physical subject and compare it to the virtual digital twin. This paper presents a digital twin of an HIL system based on a 6dof parallel kinematic manipulator. The control structure, the actuation system and the friction behaviour are developed through the use of Matlab SIMULINK whilst the mechanical behaviour of the system via a multibody approach. By means of the co-simulation, these work together and allow one to test the HIL simulation to analyse the feasibility, check the control algorithm, verify the performance attainable and asses the safety features. This work describes the HIL application and the digital twin developed purposes set out above.
Electrolux Italia SpA
System Level Simulation as Key Factor in the Development of Washing Machines
Giovanni Colombera, Electrolux Italia SpA
Fabiano Maggio, EnginSoft SpA
The CAE has always played a crucial role in the development of washing groups at Electrolux Fabric Care Department. Simulation is indeed one of the best approaches to better address the experiments and identify issues before any prototype exists. This leads to an overall reduction of new products development costs. At the same time, simulation provides means to improve our products, giving access to digital techniques of optimization. Such an advanced approach to design, keeps Electrolux a step forward its main competitors.
As washing machines have become complex mechatronics systems, there is a growing demand of multi-physics digital prototypes. The key word to achieve higher performances, while reducing the costs, is to predict upfront the best integration between electronics, controls, inertial properties, structural response, thermal response and fluids behavior. System integration is a paradigm at Electrolux Design department, which we call Model Based Design. The long term goal is to be able to design and test all aspects of a whole washing machine in a virtual environment. Recent improvements in Multi-Body-Dynamics Simulation, Fluid Dynamics Simulation and Control Simulation, confirm that the direction taken by Electrolux designers is the correct one to maintain the lead in the market of Appliances.
Impact of Weld Residual Stresses on the Creep Life of High-Temperature Pressure Components
Pressure components exposed to homologous temperatures above 0.3-0.4 are prone to develop severe creep damage over their operating lifetime and this is directly tied to their operating stress range. Weld residual stresses are likely to develop during fabrication if PWHT are not, or badly, performed and these can sum up to the operating stress field shortening the time-to-rupture. It is common opinion that these additional stresses would quickly relax over time when the equipment is operated in the creep regime, hence not contributing significantly to their overall lifetime. In this paper this assumption was evaluated for an actual case study: a branch connection weld on the main header of a HRSG assembly manufactured with an ASTM A335 P22 low-alloy and operated at 10.4 MPa and 528 °C in the creep range. The welding process was simulated via thermo-mechanical FEA including the transient thermal and a fully plastic material analyses. The simulation was carried out using the Ansys Mechanical commercial software, implementing isotropic hardening materials and element birth-and-death techniques to completely account for the welding bead deposition. A custom user-subroutine was then implemented in order to custom simulate the material behaviour in the creep regime and the analysis extended up to 200000 hours evaluating the stress field during fabrication/operation and the creep damage according to API 579-1 Sec. 10.
Aalto University Foundation
Microstructure-fluid interaction in 3D--printed silicone for laryngeal medical implants
Nihal Engin Vrana, Company Protip Medical SaS
Julien Barthes, Protip Medical SaS
Alexandra Zühlke, Aalto Univeristy Foundation
There is a growing trend of use of 3D printed implants of different materials. Common biomechanical optimization of implants usually is limited to macroscopic features leaving interface phenomena will less attention, but these phenomena are mainly responsible for the clinical success. The difficulty of management of interface phenomena is in highly multi-scale nature of different interlinked processes which in most cases do not have validated parameters and data. In this work computer simulation of 3D printed medical silicone subjected to oscillating deformation is performed to assess local microfluidics within then porous topology structure of the material, intended to be used in laryngeal implants. Such porous material when subjected to physiologically relevant deformations (~1 Hz, 20-50 µm amplitude) generates structure–fluid interaction, affecting fluid permeability and following nutrients transport. The model was made with micro-CT image segmentation, and mechanical properties of silicone were experimentally determined. The outputs of the modeling and their translation to implants applications are discussed.
OZAN MERT BALCI
A waste heat recovery system by storing energy on phase change material in combi boilers
Mehmet Akif Ezan, Dokuz Eylul University
Zafer Turhan, ASML, Eindhoven
In the current work, a novel approach is developed to recover the waste heat from the flue gas of a natural gas combi boiler. The extracted heat from the stack gas is aimed to transfer to domestic hot water to maintain a comfortable and efficient combi usage. The suggested heat recovery concept has two main steps. In the first step, the flue gas passes through the heat exchanger which involves the phase change material (PCM). Hot flue gasses melts the PCM so that the thermal energy is stored in the PCM via latent heat. In the second step, on the other hand, the stored energy within the PCM is extracted through the domestic water line to preheat the cold water. Consequently, it is aimed to develop an efficient and environmentally friendly heating system by recovering the waste heat from the combi. A numerical model, which consists of a 3D heat exchanger with PCM, is developed in ANSYS-FLUENT solver to investigate the various working and design considerations. The discharge period of the current system is crucial as the required time to produce the domestic hot water corresponds the quality of the combi boiler. The influence of volumetric flow rate of water and the total mass of the PCM are numerically obtained.
Integrated simulation system for soft materials, J-OCTA
Soft materials (Soft matter), e.g.plastics, rubber, film and so on, has a complex multi-scale structure and the computer simulation can support understanding the mechanism of physical properties. It is necessary to use the appropriate simulation method for each scale, from the atomistic to the micrometer scale. “J-OCTA”, the integrated simulation system, has some important technologies for the researchers and engineers in materials design field. Basic back ground and case studies in industry are introduced.
Prometech Software, Inc.
Recent Progress of Particle Method MPS in Industrial Application
In recent years, attempts have been made to apply computational methods based on the particle method to engineering problems that are difficult to treat with conventional mesh-based CFD software and remarkable achievements have been made. There some major advantages for the particle method. For example, it is easy to treat flow with complicated free surface and moving boundary conditions, e.g., gears, pistons, stirring blades and so on. Computational methods such as SPH and MPS have been proposed as a particle method, but the former has been developed as a method to model compressible fluid, whereas the latter has been developed for incompressible fluid. Problems with incompressible flow are very common in the design and development of industrial products, and the MPS particle method is widely applied to the simulation for such problems including oil lubrication in a gearbox, wading of vehicle through water or mud, tank sloshing, etc. In such actual product development, a user interface and an analysis condition setting function for efficiently carrying out analysis work such as ease of use and easier setting of analysis conditions are required. In this presentation, practical latest capabilities implemented in CFD software Particleworks based on MPS particle method will be introduced.
CYBERNET SYSTEMS CO.,LTD.
Multiscale and optimization analysis of lattice structure produced via additive manufacturing
Additive manufacturing products have non homogeneous structure characterized by three types of scale which are macro, meso and micro. Macro scale structure is made by many meso scale inhomogeneity that is called lattice structure. The merit of lattice structure is not only weight saving but also controllability of material property. Macroscopic material behavior is strongly depended on the shape of lattice structure namely. In this presentation, example of optimization and multiscale analysis between macro scale and meso scale lattice structure will be shown. Macroscopic an-isotropic material constants of lattice structure are predicted by CMAS. CMAS is a add-on tool for ANSYS. It is developed by CYBERNET SYSTEMS Co. Ltd and released from EnginSoft SPA at Europe.
Key to Metals
Optimization of material properties workflow and selection in CAE
One of the key Industry 4.0 design principles is the ability of machines, devices, sensors, and people to connect and communicate with each other via the Internet of Things. Necessary data and access to information therefore represent two central layers of the Reference Architectural Model Industrie 4.0 (RAMI 4.0) and material data are one of the most relevant aspects of that space. This paper will present a concept of integration of material data flow through public and companies’ private material properties databases, both within an organization and through a supply chain, with material modelling and CAE simulation positioned at the beginning of the workflow. The ability of big material data to help the selection and simulation process is presented for different starting points such as the analysis of one or a detailed comparison of a small group of preselected materials, to a “blank canvas” approach which starts from a whole global space of 500.000 diversified materials of all types. Moreover, an insight into use cases of material selection, optimization and global sourcing decisions in different parts of the supply and value chain of automotive OEMs and Tier suppliers will be provided. The use cases include lightweight design and optimization, material data for various CAE simulations such as body in white, forging and sheet metal forming. In addition, an approach is proposed for integrating material data into CAE and the general engineering workflow within organizations, through a combination of public and companies’ private material properties databases, as well as externally by means of the newest VDA standard for material data exchange in the automotive industry, thus paving a way for an Industry 4.0 level of connection throughout the entire value chain.
Simulation of thermo-mechanical effects produced by a highly focused radiation applied on a material: developing of a multi-purpose APDL script for the physical characterization
Valerio Pettinacci, Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome
David Alesini, National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), National Laboratory of Frascati
Massimo Ciambrella, Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome
Daniele Cortis, National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Rome
Marco Marongiu, National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Rome
Andrea Mostacci, Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome
Alessandro Variola, National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), National Laboratory of Frascati
Matter-radiation interaction represents a relevant aspect in several industrial applications. Accurate interaction modelling through correct radiation parameters is essential to predict the physical behaviour of used materials, such as fatigue lifetime. In this paper, we present a procedure to investigate thermo-mechanical effects that an extremely focused radiation produced hitting a material target spot. The work is based on a multi-purpose script realized with ANSYS® APDL code. Thanks to the APDL features, it was possible to simulate the temperature and the strain of a target due to specific physical parameters and spatial and temporal distributions of radiation, extending the results to a high number of thermal cycles to investigate the fatigue lifetime too. The script has been developed during the theoretical investigation of the interaction between optical transition radiation (OTR) screens and electron beams of the ELI-NP Gamma Beam Source facility. In this case study, the simulated electron beam consists in trains of 32 electron bunches 250 pC each, separated by 16 ns and distributed along a 0.5 μs RF pulse with a repetition rate of 100 Hz.
Preprocess Automation of ISO 7141 13° Impact Simulation for Light Alloy Casted Wheels
Ali Kara, CMS Jant ve Mak. San. A.S.
Cast aluminum light alloy wheels are commonly used in automotive industry for decades due to their good mechanical properties such as ductility, energy absorption and also due to their low density serves weight reduction objectives. Wheels in general are safety parts, due to this function, it is subjected to a lot of proofing tests such as dynamic bending fatigue test, ISO 7141 13° impact test, rigidity test, natural and forced vibrations measurements etc. Some of these tests are related to drive comfort and others to safety. 13° Impact test is one of the safety proofing tests for wheel and the nature of impact test is a dynamic problem in reality. It is possible to model it as a static problem but for high level correlation, it should be modelled as transient and explicit model. When the FEA model is transient-explicit, mesh quality and computation time become important. Therefore this work has been done to automate setup steps and reduce time for simulation. In addition possibility of mistakes from employees is eliminated and risk of erroneous simulation is reduced. Simulia’s Abaqus Simulation Software is used for 13° impact simulation and Python programming language is used for writing script that automates set-up.
Emiliano Di Tullio
Direct Cooling PHEV Battery 1d Analysis
Lovuolo Francesco, FCA Italy
Using of 1d virtual analysis(LMS AMESIM) to balance battery cooling versus passenger compartment performance, when refrigerant plate and battery come from different supplier.
A model for automotive tank evaporative emission prediction
Luca Romagnuolo, Università di Napoli Federico II
Pino Giliberti, FCA
Adolfo Sentatore, Università di Napoli Federico II
Assunta Andreozzi, Università di Napoli Federico II
Emma Frosina, Università di Napoli Federico II
Control of gasoline evaporative emission is a leading trend in automotive development. Recent updates of international standards and the spread of hybrid vehicles pose additional treads.
A theoretical, numerical and experimental work has been set up to build and validate a predictive model of vapor emission in static conditions, taking into account temperature, pressure, fuel properties, tank geometric parameters and filling level. It leads to a system of 14 differential equations, implemented in Matlab®. Test data for research and validation have been gathered in a sealed chamber (mini-SHED), using production and prototype items. Early results are promising. Future evolutions are toward full validation and include fuel dynamic (filling, sloshing, pump operation).
The work is part of a joint effort among FCA, Università di Napoli Federico II and Ohio State University.
Comparison of two multiphase procedures on a commercial vehicle in rain conditions
Marco Maganzi, Università di Pisa
Giovanni Lombardi, Università di Pisa
Giacomo de Angeli, Maserati S.p.A.
In automotive design, the study of the water thin layer over a car due to rain is becoming increasingly important: the challenge is to obtain a way to describe the behavior of the water over a vehicle in rainy conditions and its interactions with wipers and drainage systems, to determine potential failures of the vehicle design. In this paper two similar numeric procedures have been realized with the software STAR CCM+® to analyze the dynamic of water thin layer starting from the impingement of the rain on the car surface and taking into account even the motion of the wipers over the windshield. Moreover, the water that flows through the drainage systems is monitored to figure out which is the liquid interaction with components near them. In order to outline each phase of the water, many multiphase models are used. These methodologies have been applied on a commercial vehicle model and the results have been examined and compared to each other. The analysis shows a better description of the reality for one of them, leading to the possibility of using it as a design tool in the automotive industry.
Ali Ozan Bagriyanik
TOFAS Turk Otomobil
Preliminary design of a fully thermoplastic Front-End for a LCV
İlker Bahar, Fabrikasi A.Ş.
Fatma Sirkeci,TOFAS Turk Otomobil Fabrikasi A.Ş.
Serter Sevinc,TOFAS Turk Otomobil Fabrikasi A.Ş.
CO2 emission targets became a crucial obstacle for vehicle producers. In order to overcome this problem, weight reduction potentials are getting more and more important. In this study, for a light commercial vehicle, a glass fiber reinforced thermoplastic front-end structure has been analysed. At first, a fully plastic draft design is analysed and compared with the current metal structure. After that, a topology volume is extracted from the current vehicle structure and topology optimizations have been carried out according to the modal and static loading performance targets. Different optimization parameters have been investigated to decide the best solution in terms of performance and weight. Load paths and optimized design is calculated by topology results. Due to the packaging problems with radiator and headlamp, optimization volume is modified and with the new topology volume and optimizations are completed. Based on the topology results, a feasible design is prepared and detailed non-linear analyses are started. After the non-linear analyses, free size optimization is applied on the ribs of the part. In the end a feasible preliminary design at the same performance with less weight respect to the current metal version is completed.
R&D CFD SRL
Free-form and parametric optimization of powertrain components using CFD: from the intake to the exhaust line
Mike Saroch, Friendship Systems
Stefano Fontanesi, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Mattia Brenner, Friendship Systems
Free-form deformation and parametric CAD modification are applied in order to optimize different components of internal combustion engines. Caeses by Friendship Systems and Star-CCM+ by Siemens PLM are coupled together: three different applications are reported and they consist of an inlet pipe to the compressor, an exhaust manifold and a coolant citcuit. The aim is to give an overview of the several aspects pertaining an optimization pathway: the different targets that would be achieved, the constraints that have to be fullfilled and the approaches that could be applied in terms of design modification shedding a light on pros and cons of each of them.
Influence of Contact Linearization on Brake NvH Behavior
"Numerical methods procedures for brake squeal analysis are widely accepted in industry. The approach of complex eigenvalue analysis is successfully used to predict the appearance of squeal noise. Using simulations in an early design stage reduces time to market, saves costs and improves the physical behaviour of the brake system. To understand the system characteristics properly, efficient parameter variations may be performed using sampling methods. The approach of complex eigenvalue analysis consists of three major analysis steps. First step is the nonlinear contact analysis, followed by the linear real Eigenvalue and complex Eigenvalue analysis. Between the first step and the subsequent steps, the simulation model must be changed from a nonlinear model to a linear model. The main task of this change is to linearize the behaviour of the contact areas. In many processes for the linearization default settings are used without taking into account the individual conditions of the different contact areas. However, for small changes in the linearization settings considerable changes in NVH results are expected. To understand the sensitivity of NVH results on the linearization settings, the settings must be influenceable. The following options are necessary to analyse the linearization: • Individual settings for each contact area, • Independent linearization settings for contact normal and contact tangential direction, • Dependency on frictional state (slipping or sticking), • Threshold value for contact pressure or gap size to decide about coupling in contact normal direction, and • Threshold value for contact shear or slip distance to decide about coupling in contact tangential direction. This complete set of options for linearization is available in the high performance solver PERMAS. The presentation will show the influence of individual contact linearization settings for different contact areas of brake systems. With extended knowledge about the influence of the settings, it is possible to take the different possible behaviour of contact areas much better into account.
Multi disciplinary optimization of engine suspension stiffness
Elena Salino, FCA
Gabriella Lombardi, FCA
The engine suspension in a vehicle has the primary task to filter the car body from engine-generated vibrations, such as reciprocating mass and gas pressure forces. For idle vibrations, this is mainly achieved by tuning the engine mounts stiffness in order to set the system natural frequencies far enough from the frequencies of unbalanced orders. During car ride, though, the road induced excitations cause unwanted engine shaking, that may results in perceived discomfort for the passengers. The tuning requirements for the two cases (idle and ride engine shaking) often lead towards opposite choices. A multidisciplinary optimization on engine mount stiffness has been carried on modeFRONTIER® and ADAMS/Car® in order to identify the Pareto frontier for optimizing the tuning on 3 cylinder engine, considering idle vibrations and on-road engine shaking. A preliminary DoE has been used to train a set of response surfaces (RSM), on which a genetic algorithm has been employed to find the optimum.
BETA CAE Systems
Simulation results communication through a VR Collaboration Environment: a car's headlamp analysis case
Jaroslav Haša, Varroc Lighting Systems
Dimitris Katramados, BETA CAE Systems
Athanasios Fassas, BETA CAE Systems
A main task of an automotive engineer is to make decisions early during the development phase, even when the final CAD design is not available to the CAE engineers. Simulation plays an important role in this as many analyses and design iterations can be evaluated quickly and accurately, without having to wait for the physical prototype to be built and tested in a lab. Simulation produces interesting results, but on its own, it is not always enough, as the suggested changes must be communicated to also non-engineering teams.The evolution of hardware and VR headsets has allowed for the development of tools that give engineers the capability to interact with 3D models in an immersive environment. Engineers from different sites around the globe can join in a virtual environment to collaborate in real-time having the full-scale model in front of them. This presentation showcases the use of BETA’s software suite for the analysis of a car’s headlamp and its inspection in a VR environment.
Fiat Research Center
Dual function air outlet numerical optimization
Matteo Maria Rostagno, Fiat Research Center
Izabela Katarzyna Kowarska, FCA
Francesco Lovuolo, FCA
The thermal comfort in the standard vehicles is reached passing through a series of thermal transient conditions where jet air ejected by the common dashboard outlets produce high thermal dissymmetry, always perceived as annoying.
The ways to achieve the passengers comfort are particularly difficult and even the modes of maintaining comfort might be bad in many cases.
The integration into the cabin of systems that improve the thermal comfort, able to reduce the fluid-dynamic resistances of the HVAC system and simplify its geometry at the same time, allows to reach in advance both the thermal comfort itself and to decrease the cabin thermal transient. These solutions give the possibility to set forward the thermal stationary system condition of the A/C system with a consequent energy demand reduction and fuel saving too.
In this activity an enhanced geometry of an air outlet with a double function (jet and diffuse air) has been developed coupling the CFD numerical simulations with multi-objective optimization techniques. The experimental tests on rapid prototyping components had as results the validation of both the air outlet geometry and the numerical methodology accuracy.
Piaggio & C. SpA
Fretting fatigue implementation in Workbench
Fretting fatigue is the name given to the fatigue phenomena induced by the simultaneous presence of contact pressure and small relative displacements at the interface between adjacent bodies.
Fretting worsen the fatigue performance of engine components, thus a set of APDL has been written at Piaggio and included in a Workbench workflow to take into account that class of phenomena.
The first application was a conrod for a high performance Aprilia motorbike, which sported a very good fretting behavior.
Sait Cumhur PIÇAK
TOFAŞ Türk Otomobil Fabrikası A.Ş.
Alternator Bracket Optimization with Topology Optimization Method
Emre GÜRTAŞ, TOFAŞ Türk Otomobil Fabrikası A.Ş.
Andrea FERRONI, FCA
Gabriele Carli MORETTI, FCA
Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) are trying to find new methods for cost reduction studies without compromising from quality. Optimization is become one of the best choice for this purpose in last decade.
The objective of this study is to explain how to perform topology optimization for an alternator bracket, which is used in automotive engine to assemble alternator and steering pump to engine body.
In order to prevent resonance, the first natural frequency of all the engine components must be higher than engine working frequency. In addition to that, the bracket should also be resistant for stresses originated from both vibrations, weight of carried parts and belt loads during the operation conditions.
The main goal of optimization is to obtain both sustainable and producible design with minimum material usage. Design space is created by using UG NX. On the other hand, finite element model is created by using HyperMesh and OptiStruct is used for optimization calculations. Material density of each element is used as a design variable. As design constraints minimum value of first natural frequency of bracket and maximum deformation value of alternator and steering pump center of gravity points are defined and as a manufacturing constraint draw direction is defined. OptiStruct optimization analysis results are viewed with HyperView and in order to export conceptual design Ossmooth tool is used.
In this study, it is described both the optimization study and all the other design operations obtaining the final design which is performed for the alternator bracket, with some basic knowledge about the alternator bracket system parts and system design requirements.
TOFAŞ Türk Otomobil Fabrikası A.Ş.
Investigating the effect of door structural stiffness and flexural components to the interior wind noise at elevated vehicle speeds
Vehicle interior noise level is the sum of the structure borne and air borne noises created on the road. Structure borne noises become less important at higher speeds and the airflow around the vehicle create the airborne wind noise. When the airflow come across with the side mirrors, eddy currents create turbulent flow at the back of the mirror and near the A-pillar. Since flow conditions frequently changes on the road (weather conditions, road obstacles …), aerodynamic forces arise on the vehicle door. This unsteady aerodynamic door pressure distributions leads to complicated vibrations and increases interior noise level. The level of the wind noise conveyed from window sealing to the vehicle interior has a very significant effect on the customer’s perception of vehicle overall quality. In the present study, aspiration noise induced by sealing gap between the door and the sealing is investigated. Aerodynamic forces calculated by performing the CFD simulations at different speeds of vehicle and then door deformations calculated due to these aerodynamic forces. On the other hand, physical door deformations are measured on the road to digitize the perceived interior noise. The correlation between the sealing gap and the perceived interior noise level is expressed by examining the door stiffness and sealing pressure on the door.
Università degli Studi di Bergamo
Aerodynamic Development of a 2017 F1 Car: Performance Improvement in Freestream and Slipstreaming Conditions
Despite several attempts to solve the aerodynamic issues affecting high-downforce cars operating in slipstreaming conditions, overtaking in F1 is still a challenge. Recent studies have demonstrated that 2017 F1 cars suffer a huge performance loss when working in wake flows. When approaching the leading car, the following driver experiences a dramatic decrease in downforce and a significant change of the aerodynamic load distribution between the front and rear axle: this could lead to safety problems in high-speed corners and during braking. Starting from a 2017 F1 car designed by the British constructor PERRINN, different aero devices have been conceived and numerically tested, with the aim of improving downforce performance both in freestream flow and slipstreaming conditions. Particular attention has been put on the underbody, the front wing and the rear end of the vehicle. Steady state numerical simulations have been performed by means of the open-source software OpenFOAM.
Moving automotive thermal tests from real world roads to laboratory facilities, 1d simulation supporting
Emiliano Di Tullio, FCA
Cristian Leucci, FCA
Nicola Cauda, FCA
In order to reduce new vehicle time to market automotive thermal system engineers rely on hot or cold cells for validation testing. These laboratory facilities provide steady environmental conditions and allow different vehicle, engine, transmission set up year long, but usually do not take into account reduced air density running Alpine grades or high ground, non-European highways. Using heritage references both vehicle performances and 1d CFD automotive thermohydraulic simulation models are modified to take into account elevation effects on driving patterns and engine heat rejection, enabling improved tools to set up laboratory automotive thermal tests and support results interpretation.
Fatigue Analysis using FEMFAT inside ANSYS Workbench
Roman Pschera, Engineering Center Steyr GmbH und Co KG
Peter Vymlatil, DesingTec
FEMFAT is a finite element solution for fatigue analysis. Results can be achieved from time and frequency domain for high- and low cycle fatigue. Developments from well-known institutes and guidelines are taken into account and modified to fit the assessment method in FEMFAT. Additionally it’s based on in-house developments resulting from project works with global customers and measurements and researches from Magna Powertrain Engineering Center St. Valentin. The analysis method is a mixture from local stress concept, structural stress concept and using influence parameters to consider results from high end simulation techniques. Manufacturing processes like sand castings, die castings, metal forming, stamping and complex material models from laminates or short fiber reinforced plastics are taking into account for higher accuracy in fatigue results. Mean stress correction and plasticity in frequency domain are unique capabilities of FEMFAT.
The fatigue analysis of components with FEMFAT requires the provision of structural and stress data in dedicated formats. These data and their formats are basically predefined by the user's FE pre- and postprocessor and are generated manually. In special cases, an automated workflow is set up, which means that optimization with automatic fatigue analysis can also be carried out.
An extension to the ANSYS Workbench has been developed to simplify the fatigue analysis in terms of data management, integration of optimization software and interpretation of results.
On the one hand the lecture demonstrates the improved possibilities, which result from the integration of FEMFAT into the ANSYS Workbench, on the other hand special aspects in the development of this extension are discussed.
Guidelines for Transmission Simulation Using Both Traditional FVM and new SPH Approaches
Virtual development is becoming an essential part in the development phase of new components/system and, within this process, AVL is constantly looking for new and innovative solutions to be applied in the automotive field. In this paper, we are going to focus the attention on gearboxes application, a sub-system in which is very important to reach high efficiency trying to reduce the oil related power losses, maintaining the system lubricated and thermally stable. Within this paper we are going to compare the well-known Finite Volume Approach (FVM) and the new method based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), considering pro & cons of both methods. Different examples with increasing geometric complexity has been considered, starting from a single stage gearbox up to a complete gearbox. In gearbox applications, the required outputs include: torque losses, oil flow rate through supply channels, wetted surfaces and oil distribution, including the heat transfer between the oil and the housing to maintain the thermal stability of the system under control. Beside these required outputs, the complexity in setting up this kind of simulation with standard CFD tool should be considered, mainly related to both the geometry preparation and the generation of the volume mesh, considering moving components with very small gaps, or even the contacts between surfaces. Depending on the complexity of the geometry and the desired physics, CFD or SPH method can be used alternatively to approach this application, each one with its pros and cons.
The main differences between these two methods are:
SPH: the time required for the preprocessing (considering the geometry preparation and the simulation Set-Up) is short, considering also very complex geometries and motions. Physics is strongly simplified, because only the fluid phase is considered. Time to solution is strongly reduced if compared with standard CFD approaches. Concerning the postprocessing, is easy to be Set-Up and can also be done a posteriori. Due to the simplified physics, a limited amount of physical quantities, are available for the post-processing.
CFD: the time required for the preparation is higher due to the surface preparation and meshing processes. More complex phenomena can be considered, such as foam, fluid film and so on. The postprocessing as to be set up a priori, and more quantities are available thanks to the more complex physics involved.
Ricardo Prague Technical Technical Center
Application of WAVE-RT and rCube2 on running engine to reduce emissions and eliminate physical sensors
Petr Cerveny, Ricardo Prague Technical Technical Center
Jiri Navratil, Ricardo Software - Prague Technical Center
Martin Horacek, Ricardo Software - Prague Technical Center
Adam Kouba, Ricardo Software - Prague Technical Center
Michal Vinklar, Ricardo Software - Prague Technical Center
Nowadays there is a massive increase in powertrain complexity with rapid push to electrification of modern vehicles. This is a complex task associated with Real World Driving Emissions connected with energy management and optimization of fuel economy.
Virtual engineering as a key area of growth especially in the automotive sector to enable faster to market product development, aggressive reductions in the use of hardware and allowing comprehensive vehicle simulation environment to support development and launch of xEV products.
Ricardo is developing “virtual calibration” methodology to support OEMs with the implementation of best practice and fast repeatable process methodology. Ricardo Software has created simulation environment for full performance evaluation using Ricardo’s own commercially available software tools including WAVE RT. WAVE RT is 1D CFD crank angle resolved and physical based engine model, which captures detailed geometry and transient behavior of the engine operation, capable running in real time or faster. WAVE RT is therefore very suitable for any MiL, SiL and HiL applications of a complex vehicle model.
For a HiL simulation map based ECUs are typically used to control engine operation. However, map based ECUs has certain limitations and require lots of sensor within the vehicle. Replacing the map based engine model by a WAVE RT model allows to simulate those values that are not possible to measure e.g. trapped air mass in each cylinder. Knowing this value, it allows us to calculate a precise fueling requirement to achieve a target air/fuel ratio.
Two applications using the WAVE RT engine model embedded in the Ricardo rapid prototyping control unit rCube2 controlling the real diesel engine on dynamometer will be presented.
1. Smoke reduction emissions by using computed trapped mass in cylinder by WAVE RT physical model
2. Eliminating Physical Sensors and replacing sensed value by computed value using WAVE RT physical model
Flame-wall interaction modelling for pre-chamber combustion in lean burn gas engines
Evgeniy Shapiro, Ricardo Software
Lean burn combustion systems present a viable route to emissions reductions. Scavenged pre-chamber ignition (PCI) systems aim to address this challenge by creating favourable ignition conditions close to stoichiometry in the spark region. The main lean charge ignition is then delivered by flame jets propagating through the nozzles connecting the pre-chamber to the cylinder. However when using pre-chambers in light-duty application several problems need to be overcome compared to conventional ignition systems.
The interaction of the flame with the walls of the pre‐chamber is an important issue affecting operation of the PCI combustion system. The flame may quench near to the wall due to heat losses. This is more prominent in PCIs designed for light‐duty vehicles as the characteristic size of PCIs can be comparable with the flame quenching distance.
Near wall quenching also affects the quality of the fuel mixture within the pre‐chamber due to the accumulation of unburned mixture in crevices near the spark housing and the gas valve outlet. This issue is crucial when looking at vehicle emissions
Finally, the thermal quenching effect can affect the main pre‐chamber operation. If the flame can propagate through the pre‐chamber nozzles without quenching then the mixture in the cylinder is ignited by the jet flame front. But if the flame is quenched within the nozzles, the mixture in the cylinder is ignited by hot radicals injected which create distributed combustion microkernels downstream of the nozzles. Modelling of these phenomena is essential to the successful design of PCIs.
To simulate these effects a novel phenomenological quenching model has been has been developed by Ricardo and implemented into the VECTIS cfd product to work with G‐equation combustion model. This paper illustrates the principles and applications of the developed model. Comparisons with academic benchmarks are presented indicating favourable performance across a range of pressures and mixture stoichiometry. The model is then applied to the analysis of a novel pre-chamber ignition system and the results also compared with measurement data. The results demonstrating good accuracy of the developed model using both cut-cartesian style grid.
Efficient Freeform Optimization for Stress Reduction on Complex Assemblies
Markus Dahlbokum, FPT Motorenforschung AG
Numerical methods for complex assemblies like engines are widely accepted in industry. Corresponding optimization methods are available since many years. It is well known in the industry that usage of optimization in an early design stage reduces time to market, saves costs and improves the physical behaviour and robustness of the mechanical system. Nevertheless, optimization methods only were used for single parts and simple mechanical boundary condition. Complex geometry, complex load history or complexity in form of assemblies with many parts which interact by contact with each other prevented industrial usage of automatic optimization processes. All three complexities together led to unacceptable run and preparation time consumption for this kind of optimization. So, current processes for this class of analysis consist of manual geometry update and many time consuming manual loops to improve the behaviour of the structure.
Acceptance in Industry is only possible by time reduction and automation in all phases of the process. The main issues are addressed in parts which create together a complete solution.
First part is run time of the solver. State of the art of simulation with PERMAS comprises fast run times for complex assemblies with contact. E.g. simulations with load histories with many steps, which reproduce assembly procedure and alternating loadings in combination with fine meshes in the size up to 100 million degree of freedom (dof) run overnight.
Second part of acceleration is optimization technology. Instead of optimization software that restarts the solver many times from outside, it is much more efficient to integrate optimization into the solver. It is possible to reuse data in the loops and to define smaller loops. PERMAS combines solver and optimizer technology in one software. The software takes all advantages of this integration.
Third time consuming part is the definition of optimization. Freeform optimization is defined by simple surface sets, which are easy to define. No additional direction must be defined, because the direction is defined by the normal direction of the surface at any position. Many additional input items are detected automatically based on the mesh. In addition, a tool with wizard technology supports the definition by a step by step process.
The success of the new process for freeform optimization of complex assemblies will be shown by two industrial examples. First example is a cylinder head of an engine assembly. Second example is a tractor chassis where the engine is part of the main structure. For both structure the stress is reduced significantly.
Wärtsilä Finland Oy
Designing and analysing the cooling of a medium speed engine piston using MPS method
Important constraint in designing a piston for a medium speed engine is maximum temperature of the piston. Too high piston temperature causes for example hot corrosion and decrease in material properties.
When piston is developed for a new engine it is usually required that several piston geometries are tested. In early stage of the development one must be convicted that piston temperatures do not exceed general design limits. To calculate the piston temperatures thermal boundary conditions must be known. Thermal load can be determined by approximate methods or more precise combustion simulation. Determining the cooling effect of oil inside piston cooling gallery is rather difficult. Oil splashing inside piston is free surface flow which is difficult flow scenario to be simulated.
Particleworks which utilizes MPS method offers an effective way to simulate oil flow and also to calculate the heat transfer coefficient. As a mesh-free method it enables quick evaluation of different designs without using long time to pre-processing. Also the actual simulation time is short compared to traditional methods. The use of MPS method and validation results are shown in the paper.
Drive System Design Ltd
Increasing power density of EV E-Motors via optimised cooling simulation methods
To develop electric vehicle E-Motors with higher power densities and greater efficiency, analysis of heat transfer throughout the E-Motors needs to be performed early and often in the design cycle, to reach a solution that achieves adequate cooling capacity.
Current methods for analysing heat transfer from the rotor and stator to the cooling fluid rely on either analytical methods which can be fast but provide low fidelity results, or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) which is time and resource intensive and not particularly suitable as an early, iterative design tool.
A new approach is presented in place of conventional CFD techniques for predicting oil flow and heat transfer in an oil-cooled E-Motor. The method utilises moving particle simulation techniques to rapidly simulate the fluid motion in the E-Motor and to quickly generate a heat transfer coefficient mapping of the full E-Machine 3D rotor and stator geometry.
This paper describes the new approach taken to E-Motor cooling simulation, how it was applied in the overall design process, including a comparison with physical test results. Comparisons to alternative simulation methods are also presented. Conclusions are drawn on the new methods' viability to improve the E-Motor design process, particularly assessing it's implementation as a rapid iterative design tool.
Remo De Donno
Industrie Saleri Italo Spa
Design of Centrifugal Pumps by CFD Simulations and Surrogate-Based Shape Optimization
Centrifugal pumps design and performance prediction is far from trivial due to the high number of free geometric parameters to be determined. CFD codes can be used to numerically predict the performance of a given design and to obtain detailed information on the 3D flow field in advance of experimental model tests. Nowadays, the availability of ever increasing computational resources makes the coupling of CFD and shape optimization algorithms a viable path toward an automatic, robust, and fast design strategy for turbomachinery. The aim of this study is to propose and validate a methodology for the robust and optimal automatic design of centrifugal pumps, based on CFD simulations and surrogate-based shape optimization using open-source software in high performance computing (HPC) environment.
Ventilation Inception for Kite Foil Surface Piercing Struts
Giorgio Provinciali, Giorgio Provinciali Srls
Surface piercing hydrofoils can be subjected to natural ventilation. This phenomenon consists of air entering in a specified region where the pressure reaches a sub-atmospheric value on an immersed strut; the difference in pressure creates a local cavity, air filled, that is open to the external environment. Ventilation is a key factor to consider when designing a new kite foil daggerboard because in case of occurence, the performances of the hydrofoil are drastically reduced. By using specific CFD tools, the ventilation inception is investigated for a new designed surface piercing foil. Different sections are compared and specific post process data collected and compared to visualize the possible ventilation inception.
Fluid dynamics optimization of a shaft-less rim-driven thruster
Daniele Malgieri, MICAD Srl
The shaft-less rim-driven thruster (RDT) can provide many advantages over traditional ship propulsion plants including enhanced onboard comfort and propulsion efficiency, locations arrangement flexible installation, light weight and compact size. For this reason, during last years it become an attractive ship propulsion device in the marine industry.
Within the project P. E. R. Na. (Propulsore elettrico reversibile per la Nautica) financed by the FvG region with Uni-TS, Uni-UD and MW.FEP as partners, a hydrodynamic optimisation (DoE) was developed with the aim of determining the feasibility of this type of thrusters for propulsion of sailing boats.
The electric motor will have the possibility of generating electricity by extracting energy from the boat's motion when it sails. For this reason, from a hydrodynamic point of view, the best compromise has been reached between these two operation modes.
A completely parametric model of the rotor (blades and rim) has been created with Grasshopper inside the Rhinoceros 3D environment, a selection of variables has been included in the multi-objectives optimization process carried out through modeFRONTIER (ESTECO) by measuring the parameters chosen by performing CFD simulations with the Star-CCM+ solver (SIEMENS).
BETA CAE Systems
Simulation results compression for efficient Results Data Management
Stelios Karapantazi, BETA CAE Systems
Dimitrios Krontsos, BETA CAE Systems
Automated post processes is very common nowadays. Simple scenarios include saving only specific results in post-processing software native databases whereas in more sophisticated cases a series of report data are stored in data management systems. New challenges arose this way relevant to the need to download the report data from a data server as quickly as possible, display and compare them in the best way allowing in the same time as much access to the original results data as possible.
This paper presents a solution in this field. The compression capabilities of post processor META native database, far exceed the conventional compression solutions reducing storage requirements and more importantly bringing database downloading times to affordable levels. The tool offers full control of the data accuracy stored and advanced parameterization per model/component/part and per result. Model simplification techniques produce 3d databases with a satisfactory draft display of the results field in sizes of one hundredth of the original ones.
LincoSim Web App: preliminary usage statistics and validation results
Francesco Salvadore, CINECA
Claudio Arlandini, CINECA
In this work, we present the preliminary usage statistics and validation results of the LincoSim web application. LincoSim is an innovative web application dedicated to the design process of planing hulls by means of CFD runs and is developed within the EU funded project LINCOLN. The web user interface has been opened to partner usage in April 2018 and supports now three different groups of users that have performed hundreds of CFD runs (0 DoF and 1 DoF) performing a preliminary set of solver validations. The preliminary results in terms of usability and robustness are positive with about 800 completed 0-1DoF simulations and more than100 geometries uploaded on the dev instance and about 100 completed 0-1 DoF simulations and more than 20 geometries uploaded on the production instance. The set of validation test also is encouraging for the 1DoF solver basic setup with an average error of about 15% for the drag evaluation. A set of tailored sea-trial tests and physical towing tank experimental campaign over two different vessels are planned to be performed by the end of 2018 and they will be used to further improve the 2DoF solver accuracy.
BCOOL ENGINEERING srl
CAE Tools In Marine Industry: Optimization of On-Board Thermal Comfort
In marine industry, CAE tools are widely used for the design and optimization of all the hydro and aerodynamics components of a yacht, mainly related to pure naval architecture. Less studies are done for on-board HVAC systems: in general, air condition devices are placed where available space is present without any consideration of the real effective functionality of the devices. In most of the cases, the air quality distribution is not optimal with extensive discomfort zones. By using a CFD approach it is possible to study and optimize the air inflow conditions working on the design of the plenum comparing the solutions from usual design to custom optimized design. The investigation shows the effective necessity of the CAE tools in HVAC design to improve the thermal comfort on-board of yachts. In most of the cases, the standard designs of a plenum are not sufficient to achieve the required level of comfort and a proper study is needed to design a custom one more efficient.
Carlo Augusto Pasquinucci
Learning from Results: Data Based Project based on CFD Simulations
The democratization of CFD simulations and the availability of more performant DoE algorithms help in the creation of huge database of ship forms and performance.
With the post-processing of the resultant data, it is possible to understand better the influence of the geometry on the resistance, helping engineers in the configuration of good geometries also in early design stages.
In this paper, the influence of the geometrical coefficients on the resistance evaluated by CFD-software is studied on the statistical point of view, first performing statistical hypothesis tests, later calculating different correlation indices, linear and non-linear multivariate regressions and scenario analyses, with the use of open-source Python libraries and simple codes.
The tools proposed can be use also for other studies, helping engineer in an analytic analysis of the problem, very useful in particular for innovative design, where it is not possible to rely on experience and old results.
Hitachi Rail Italy
Crashworthiness design according to the European Standard EN15227: description of the numerical/experimental methodology applied to the new MLA platform projec
A modern train must not only fulfil the traditional static load and fatigue requirements; it shall also fulfil passive safety necessities. These crashworthiness requirements must be considered in the design of the coach structural part of the vehicle. Sophisticated crashworthiness analyses are today a regular step in the engineering process of developing a new train.
Vehicle crash is a dynamic phenomenon featuring a complex interaction between structural and inertial behaviour. It is generally recognised that in a typical collision the end structure experiences first the impact and undergoes eventually large deformation in the impact region.
The passengers only later experience the effect of the impact. The first phenomenon is normally referred to as primary collision and the second type of events, related to the passengers, is normally referred to as secondary collision.
Due to the geometrical complexities of rail vehicle structures and to the complicated material behaviour involved in large deformation, finite element computer programs with elastoplastic dynamic analysis capabilities have to be used (LS-Dyna).
This presentation describes the methodology which has been adopted for the analysis and design of rail vehicles structural crashworthiness: the project has led to develop new products through new technologies using innovative approaches and materials. The main goal of the project was to make the vehicle compliant with current Crashworthiness European Standard (EN15227) through a structural strength re-design made even more complex by the presence of aesthetical and mechanical interface restraints linked to the “Platform” concept. In particular for this project, the designed sacrificial elements placed in the impact region are innovative as they are made in a special composite material. This product combines qualities of lightness, efficiency and low costs.
Juan Pablo Leiva
Vanderplaats Research & Development, Inc.
Structural Optimization: Evolution, Concepts and Applications
Brian C. Watson, Vanderplaats Research & Development, Inc.
In recent years, topology optimization has been receiving considerably large attention due to the popularization of additive manufacturing and its adoption by major CAD and CAE players. But, topology optimization is not new. It has been discussed and developed in academic circles by nearly 3 decades and it has been implemented in codes like GENESIS for two decades. On the other hand, topology optimization is not the only type of optimization that can be used, other types such as sizing and shape optimization has been known or discussed for nearly six decades. In this paper we will discuss some important events that have make structural optimization practical in commercial codes. We will discuss the implementation in the GENESIS software and is application as a standalone code. We will also discuss the use of GENESIS in other environments like ANSYS Workbench. Applications that illustrate the evolution of structural optimization will be included.
FRIENDSHIP SYSTEMS AG
Massive Parameter Reduction for faster Fluid-dynamic Optimization of Shapes
Carsten Fütterer, Friendship Systems AG
Stefan Harries, Friendship Systems AG
Jörg Palluch, Friendship Systems AG
The performance and economic success of many products directly depend on their fluid-dynamic behavior. The shape of turbochargers, ship hulls, engine components etc. decides about energy efficiency, vibration excitation, noise emission, flow homogeneity, pressure drop and many more key aspects. Consequently, the optimization of complex shapes by means of simulation has been pursued with ever increasing intensity over the last ten to twenty years. To this end, high-fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes, e.g. to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes Equations (RANSE), are employed. While the accuracy of the solvers is steadily improved, in particular for the ranking of design variants, even the sound increase of computational resources cannot compensate the fact that CFD simulations are often costly and time-consuming to run. Hence, in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) a lot of effort is being put into providing sophisticated parametric models that would define shapes with as few parameters as possible. This is because in design and, ultimately, in optimization the effort of changing geometry and reevaluating performance scales easily with the square of the degrees-of-freedom, i.e., the number of free variables with which to describe and control the design task.
The paper will therefore present high-fidelity parametric models for variable geometry in CAE, focusing on fair shapes that are already defined with very few parameters. Various examples will be given for illustration, namely the compressor stage of a turbocharger, the ship hull for a RoPAX ferry for the Mediterranean and the inlet duct for an engine. A method will be discussed how to massively reduce parameter spaces further. The method, known as Karhunen–Loève Expansion (KLE) as introduced by Diez et al. (2012) and then further developed for the optimization of maritime assets as discussed, for instance, in Pellegrini et al. (2017), has been implemented within the Process Integration and Design Optimization (PIDO) system CAESES®, supporting the analysis of parametric models, massive parameter reduction and, furthermore, the utilization of the principle components for subsequent optimization.
KLE mathematically belongs to the family of principal component analysis. A large set of shapes, which have to be topologically identical, is generated by means of a Design-of-Experiment (DoE). These statistically uncorrelated shapes are then analyzed for their Eigenvalues and -vectors, defining a new (transformed) design space. The coordinate directions of this so-called KLE space are interpreted as “super-parameters” since, typically, a considerably lower number of KLE parameters already retain much of the variability of the original shapes. The super-parameters may be ordered according to their importance for capturing the original shapes. Interestingly, 95% of the variability is already attained with very few of the most influential super-parameters, allowing the design team to work within a massively reduced design space. This then decreases the number of necessary simulations for performance analysis very tangibly, i.e., by up to one order of magnitude.
A non-trivial part of applying the KLE method is that, for sophisticated Computer Aided Design (CAD) models on the basis of BReps (Boundary Representation), a back-transformation has to be undertaken from the KLE space to the original CAD space before a suitable variant can actually be generated and pre-processed for any successive CFD simulation. The paper will explain, too, on how this can be achieved.
The examples to be presented will show how the optimization effort can be reduced, speeding up the entire process, while still achieving similar or even better optimization results.
Parts of the work presented stem from the German research & development project GAMMA (Effiziente GAsmotoren für MaritiMe Anwendungen der nächsten Generation – Efficient GAs engines for MaritiMe Applications of the next generation), headed by MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH with the Technical University Darmstadt, Numeca Ingenieurbüro and FRIENDSHIP SYSTEMS as partners. The project is funded by the Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology on the orders of the German Bundestag.
Ducati Motor Holding SPA
Ride comfort optimization of a Ducati motorbike
Current trends in the large-displacement motorcycle market entail a strong competition among the main brands, in which the product performance has to be optimized thus requiring the adoption of improved processes and tools early in the design stage. Depending on the market segment, the concept of performance might be applied to different product features, from engine power to vehicle handling, from sound quality attributes to ride comfort. Virtual design, and CAE simulation in particular, is widely used in the product development process to meet the established performance targets within strict time and cost requirements.
As an example, the development of a multi-body model of the brand’s cruiser bike, the Ducati XDiavel, is presented here, which aims at defining an optimal design setup concerning ride comfort, through a quantitative understanding of the factors which impact this particular performance attribute in specific maneuvers. The process involves the adoption of ESTECO’s modeFRONTIER optimization tool, along with the selected multi-body dynamics simulation software, at various stages. First, a parameter identification procedure is carried out based on experimental results, ending up with a baseline simulation model which is capable of reproducing some identified ride comfort metrics. Then, sensitivity analyses are performed in order to understand which are the most important design parameters, and how those interact to define a specific dynamic response. Finally, optimal setups based on extensive simulation campaigns are defined and validated through experimental testing.