The principal event in Simulation Based Engineering and Sciences makes its annual return to serve international stakeholders from all sectors in academia, industry to research and software vendors. Simulation performs a central role in all aspects of the product lifecycle, from concept, through to engineering design and into its operations. Saving time and money by performing simulations earlier in the design cycle is not the only advantage from the technologies available today: simulation lets you delve further, to create a “digital twin” of your product, providing insight into performances and valuable knowledge in respects to maintenance. Progressively the physical world and the digital world merges as it is pushed by new technology areas such as the Internet of Things, additive manufacturing, big data, and Industry 4.0. Such reflection of the engineering landscape drives the format of the event.
The varied proposal of high-quality cultural content: from the plenary session and the industry-related sessions is populated by inspired speakers -providing leading insights, success stories showcasing engineering applications and/or technology adopted to embrace and overcome industry challenges.
For an exhibition – which has proven to be exceptionally popular, will be almost double the size this year. In addition, in terms of the Research Agorà – where representatives of project Consortiums in the field of smart manufacturing, biomedical, high performance computing, energy and big data and analytics share their project concepts and achievements, complemented by the Poster Award. An award open to all students, graduates, researchers and/or faculty members from all Academic Institutes and Research Centres to help disseminate and engage the adoption of Engineering Simulation – will be accepting sponsors from industry for the first time, bridging the gap between the industrial and academic world.
Finally, the Best Practice area – where methods, design approaches and techniques will be discussed in an interactive framework, designed to show how to get superior outcomes from the simulation and to comply with industry standards, opening the window on the subject of Industry 4.0.
Furthermore, a dedicated area, including a session and exhibition on additive manufacturing, including short courses on topical issues like fatigue for composite materials or geometric dimensioning and tolerancing to the opening towards the EC trends and offering.
The conference will host some collateral events which will be announced over the next few weeks.
Below are the first information on some of these initiatives.
M4I4, Mathematics for Industry 4.0: this event is organized by the Italian Society for Applied and Industrial Mathematics (SIMAI) In this CAE Conference satellite meeting academics and professionals will explore some of the current challenges and opportunities for research in mathematics with an emphasis on Industry 4.0 applications.
Smart Manufacturing: competenze e strategie per il digitale nell’industria: The access to this exclusive event organized for VIP eligible guests are available by invitation only.
Some Keynotes Speakers
The History & Future of Multibody Dynamics
Kyung Hee University, Department of Mechanical Engineering
CFD analysis of an industrial burner for a regeneration gas heater application
Thomas Odry, Brembana & Rolle | Marco Rottoli, Brembana & Rolle | Annarosa Troia, EnginSoft
Burners are widely used to satisfy the request of thermal energy in many industries. The design of a burner and the related heat transfer equipment must fulfill severe safety requirements, in order to avoid issues during the operation stage. One of the risk is that the flame can impinge onto tubes or other part of the equipment, with consequent safety issues. In the oil and gas industry, some fired equipment design practices dictate the maximum flame length with respect to the size of the radiant chamber. Flame length is usually determined by performing a dedicated firing test, but CFD can be conveniently used for this purpose. The present work describes a numerical analysis of a gas-fired burner in a vertical cylindrical fired heater. Starting from the 2D drawing, a 3D model of the burner and the radiant section of the heater was created and meshed with ICEM CFD. The solver ANSYS CFX was used to run the simulation. The analysis was developed in cooperation with Enginsoft, especially in the development of the 3D model and meshing stage. Different load conditions of the burner have been tested, in order to check the flame height at different conditions.
Andrea Egidio Ascheri
An innovative approach to design optimization of production lines under regional requirements
This work describes a novel approach to the preliminary design of production systems aimed at satisfying the global growing demand for high volum+A1:R71e manufacturing systems. The approach presented in the talk combines Knowledge Based Engineering tools with modelling and optimization techniques. The resulting technology offers an integrated approach to fast and first-time-right production systems design, capable of taking into account engineering constraints, efficiency and reliability KPIs, equipment costs, and region-dependent parameters such as local energy costs, personnel costs etc.
Piping Systems Research & Engineering Co NTP (Truboprovod)
Flow distribution analysis of complex pipeline systems with two phase flow
Leonid Korelstein, Piping Systems Research & Engineering Co (NTP Truboprovod)
Flow rate distribution analysis method for complex piping systems with gas-liquid two phase boiling/condensing flow was developed and implemented in Hydrosystem software. The method is an extension of Global Gradient Algorithm initially proposed for water piping systems analisys. The new feature is widely used for transfer pipelines in refineries and steam tracing systems in power industry.
GeM - ECN
Modeling Automated Tape Placement Process: in a multi-physics and multi-scale approach
Francisco Chinesta, ECN | Angel Leon, ECN | Hermine Tertrais, ECN
Automated tape placement is a promising composite forming process based on the fusion bonding of a prepreg tape on a substrate. By heating the interface between the incoming tape and substrate, and applying pressure, a laminate part out of autoclave can be obtained in one step, making the process attractive for industry.
In order to reach in-situ consolidation with this process, the material has to undergo several steps: heating, consolidation, and cooling. During these three stages, different physical phenomena occur, the important point is that all these phenomena take place at material interfaces and are governed by temperature and pressure. The critical aspects concerns the heating and consolidation step, when the bonding occurs.
In the present work, we propose a novel approach to improve the understanding of the consolidation step, we first propose to model the surface as a fractal which parameters are extracted from a prepeg experimental characterisation, the surface is then compressed and thermal exchanges at the microscales are computed. We improve the fractal modelisation by a wavelet description of the surface in order to work on a real surface topology and propose an experimental validation of outstanding results.
In a second hand we propose a reflexion around the interaction between waves and matter in order to improve the heating step.
A finite element approach to predicting the effect of the demodulation ring in a loudspeaker
Magneto-dynamic loudspeakers have been used for decades as the primary transduction method for transforming an electric signal into acoustic pressure. One of the most important aspects when designing a quality loudspeaker is to try to minimise distortion, usually primarily caused by two factors: mechanical nonlinearities and electromagnetic nonlinearities. The latter finds one of its core causes in the change of inductance as a function of the coil excursion within the air gap. This unwanted effect can be reduced and kept under control through the use of demodulation rings or copper caps.
In this paper, a thorough FE simulation of this phenomenon will be carried out with the use of COMSOL Multiphysics. 2D axisymmetric simulations were chosen for their efficiency over 3D simulations. For the scope of this analysis, a 15 inch neodymium woofer was chosen as the loudspeaker under test.
Astarte Strategies Srl
Cone-meter performance optimisation through a CFD-experimental approach
Giorgio Melis, Astarte Strategies S.r.l. | Antonio Landi, Bono Energia S.p.A. | Gianluca Marongiu, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Chimica e dei Materiali (DIMCM)| Francesco Cambuli, Astarte Strategies S.r.l. and Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Chimica e dei Materiali (DIMCM)
V-cone flow meters are widely adopted due to their many advantages, as a wide rangeability, low sensitivity to vibration and are suitable for many types of fluids and two-phase flows.
The actual reference standard prescribes geometric, installation and operating procedures for V-cone meter measurements in ducts and calibration instructions with specific ranges of main geometric and operating parameters.
To overcome the limitations of the standard and better adapt the geometry to the requirements of an industrial application, a design optimization of a V-cone meter has been done through a combined numerical and experimental approach. The numerical model has been validated against wind tunnel tests on a scale model. A CFD analysis on the modified-to-standard configuration leaded to the calibration relation of the measuring device. Results have shown a good accuracy of the calibration formulas and an appreciable rangebility of the cone meter in the proposed configuration.
Shape optimization of 3d printed high performances automotive parts
Marco Evangelos Biancolini, RBF Morph srl, University of Rome "Tor Vergata" | Ubaldo Cella, Design Methods | Marco Ponzi, HSL srl
3d printing has recently grown from a niche technology useful for prototyping into a standard manufacturing process suitable for mainstream applications. New challenges are posed to fully exploit the high flexibility offered and CAE plays a crucial role as new design concepts are required. In the near future thanks to advanced 3d solutions also new product can be imagined and produced including mechatronic systems and computational distributed intelligence.
Novel workflow that strongly integrate the physics of the part with its shape are available and the realization of stress or flow sculpted parts is now possible also. In the framework of the Fortissimo Project HSL and RBF Morph have demonstrated this concept with a pilot study conducted for Lamborghini on specific High Performance Car Components. The engine airbox of the high performance Aventador car has been redefined by shape optimization and manufactured by 3d printing gaining an increment of performance of 3.5%. Advanced mesh morphing by RBF Morph, high fidelity CFD and FEM are key enablers of the joint vision herein presented.
University of Milano-Bicocca
Pump Scheduling Optimization in Water Distribution Networks: a Global Optimization approach
Francesco Archetti, University of Milano-Bicocca | Riccardo Perego, University of Milano-Bicocca
Bayesian Optimization (BO) has become the state-of-the-art tool for solving global optimization and simulation-optimization problems whose objective function is black-box or expensive to evaluate. BO uses, and sequentially updates, a surrogate probabilistic model of the objective function: Gaussian Processes (GP) and Random Forest (RF) are the widely adopted models. An acquisition function, such as Expected Improvement (EI) and Confidence Bound (CB), aims to suggest the next promising point to evaluate, according to the surrogate model.
This paper proposes BO for solving the Pump Scheduling Optimization (PSO) problem in a Water Distribution Network (WDN), considering both ON/OFF and Variable Speed Pumps (VSP). The EPANET simulation software is used to compute energy cost and verifies hydraulic feasibility for a given pump schedule. Both GP and RF are used along with EI and CB as acquisition function. The case study is a WDN widely adopted in literature.
Constrained Geometric Parameterization by Mesh Morphing for a Catamaran Foils Optimization Procedure
Marco Evangelos Biancolini, University of Rome "Tor Vergata" | Alberto Clarich, ESTECO | Francesco Franchini, EnginSoft
Finding an efficient solution to the problem of parameterizing highly constrained geometric configurations is a challenging task. Aspects related to robustness requirements, furthermore, acquire additional importance when the model is developed for a CAE based numerical optimization environment. In such a scenario, a common solution is to couple a parametric CAD model with a remeshing procedure. In this work, a mesh morphing approach based on Radial Basis Functions is proposed. The objective is to demonstrate its capability in implementing a complex constrained geometric parameterization highlighting the several advantages it offers in comparison to a standard CAD driven strategy. With this aim, a pilot study has been developed focusing on a particularly demanding problem: the optimization of A-Class catamaran foils. The proposed procedure led to identify a solution able to significantly improve the performance of the baseline geometry both in upwind and downwind sailing conditions.
Supercharge your workstation by moving your workload to the cloud. Preliminary results on a marine application
Cloud computing is increasingly becoming an enabling technology also for manufacturing companies. Main advantages are the scalability on multiple resources according to loading and the high reliability of cloud computing providers. Currently, cloud computing is available through different paradigms, namely SaaS, PaaS, IaaS. On the CAE market several start-ups and ISV are proposing cloud services, while big cloud providers such as Microsoft, Amazon and Google have their own IaaS proposition.
We evaluated a CFD workload in a marine application to measure the performances of a cloud provider in terms of elapsed time and scalability. The experiment showed that use of cloud computing can reduce in a relevant way time to results thanks to an immediate and unlimited availability of concurrent CFD runs thus enabling to study the typical resistance curve in a single slot of time.
In the last part of the paper we also discuss which are the current limitations and the advantages and the opportunities of running our simulations on cloud services.
Isabella Mazza, Ergolines Srl | M. Turchetto, ESTECO SpA | C. Persi, Ergolines Srl | A. Santoro, Ergolines Srl | S. Spagnul, Ergolines Srl
This paper describes the activities of ESTECO and Ergolines for the iCAST project, funded by Regione Friuli Venezia Giulia under the POR FESR 2014-2020 call. The project is part of the “S3 - Smart Specialization Strategy” area (metalworking sector), in the framework of the development trajectory dedicated to Numerical modeling technologies of processes and products.
Ergolines and ESTECO team up to elaborate a new technology for ‘assisted solidification’ of steel in order to improve the quality of the final product. To achieve this goal, they are carrying out research activities in the field of modeling, simulation and numerical optimization of key parameters of the process and plants.
Moreover, with the aim of defining an innovative methodology for collaborative design in this field, ESTECO will customize its state-of-the-art technology, and in particular modeFRONTIER desktop software to include numerical solvers and models in the logic process and the web-based enterprise platform VOLTA to distribute computational load on the network resources, to include experts and non experts in the engineering process.
Simulations and experimental results on work machines in the digital twin era
Some experiences with work machines will be presented concerning data acquisition for continuous monitoring of manufacturing processes where experimental measurements may help to understand process efficiency, product quality and the correctness of simulation models.
Vibrational analysis for existing working machines points out some critical issues related to the data acquisition from the field while a distributed monitoring architecture based on CLOUD and edge-computing, together with control instruments and feedback capability towards machineries, may represent a major advantage.
The presentation ends by highlighting some benefits this approach can bring within the INDUSTRY 4.0 and in particular the requirements’ compliant for the fiscal benefit related to the Italian market.
Free University of Bozen-Bolzano
An innovative partitioning-based meshing methodology for simulating lubrication of gearboxes
Thanks to the recent developments in the computer science, simulations are becoming an increasingly widespread approach that can help the designers in the development of new products. In the specific field of gearboxes, simulations are used mainly for structural evaluations. However, while for the structural design beside the simulations, many analytical methods and international standard are available; for the prediction of the power losses and the efficiency of gears, neither accurate analytical methods nor automated simulation tools are available. The authors work on this topic since years and have developed new methodologies based on computational fluid dynamics. With respect to general purpose commercial software, these techniques allow a significant reduction of the computational effort and have the capability to take into account particular physical phenomena that occurs in gears, such as cavitation, and for which no information are available in literature. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new automated mesh-partitioning strategy implemented to extend the applicability of the previously developed computational effort reduction method to complex gearboxes getting over the geometrical limitations adopted in the past. To show the capabilities of this new strategy, we simulated a planetary gearbox that represents at the same time one of the most complicated kinematic arrangements of gears and the configuration for which the numerical fluid dynamics simulation can give the major contribution both with planar simplified models as well as with complete 3D models.
Warpage minimization of structural component with glass fiber reinforced polymer by using HRS’s FlexFlow technology: a practical case
Nicola Pavan, Inglass Spa
Weight reduction and metal replacement are two of the biggest trends of transportation industry which led to larger use of plastic reinforced materials in injection moulding processes. These trends involve several components but mainly large structural parts which highlight some critical aspects related to part geometry and functionality: tolerances and assembly, strength and weld lines management.
Complete control of deflection and weld lines are the key points for successful moulding of these components. HRS’s FlexFlow solution provide wider flexibility in controlling polymer behaviour in cavity helping to easily manage these aspects.
In this study different simulations have been compared using both controlled valve pin technology and standard sequential settings. Then results have been compared with production components too.
AFIL - Associazione Fabbrica Intelligente Lombardia
The Vanguard Initiative: an opportunity for manufacturing companies to exploit network of pilot plants to validate high-risk investments in efficient and sustainable manufacturing
In the frame of the initiative “Vanguard – New Growth Through Smart Specialization”, AFIL together with EURECAT is coordinating the “ESM – Efficient and Sustainable Manufacturing” pilot project with the intent of conceiving and developing a European networked infrastructure of pilot plants in key-areas of manufacturing. By leveraging available research results, ESM European pilot plants will support companies’ innovation in breakthrough technologies and applications that require manufacturing efficiency and sustainability. This approach will generate European competitive value chains exploiting synergies and complementarities of different regional specialization in the framework of circular economy, intelligent and digital factory, energy efficiency and sustainable materials.
Massimo Dal Vecchio
CAE License Assessment: Optimizing Software Usage to Improve ROI
Advances in CAE software technology are changing the way many industries are working. Engineering companies can virtualize almost the entire go to market process using these applications. CAE, or CAx, applications allow for optimize designs, create virtual prototypes, use models for testing and get ready for production even before any physical artifact is ever built.
These innovative software tools will impact businesses in many ways: from changing their processes to rethinking their approach in managing software and IT assets. Understanding application usage patterns, constantly monitoring the efficiency in using them and developing appropriate accounting procedures for properly charge back costs to each project will be important steps in optimizing the economic efficiency and improve ROI.
In today’s session, we will focus on how you can optimize your engineering software licenses to make the most out of them. Implementing a software usage metering solution with powerful analytical capabilities you can reduce software costs, control your deployment processes, implement cost allocation based on actual usage by departments or projects and collect evidences for charging actual costs to customers.
Whether you’re managing CAE applications, usage metering allows you to provide the right software to the right person at the right time thereby optimizing your costs and improving your efficiency.
Silverio Della Rosa
Front electric sustainer for gliders, CFD simulations
Simone Bartesaghi, Wind&Water Consultants
The Front Electric Sustainer (FES) has nowadays numerous installations on single seat gliders.
Most common use is as sustainer, but recently gliders of new FAI 13.50m class can take off with it, enhancing the potentiality of this light glider. The simplicity of use is evident, but the most requiring pilots are aware about the performance decay due to the propeller on glider nose. By using CFD tools, a comparison for bare fuselage and FES device installed is done. For the current study two speeds are investigated: 120 km/h (near at the maximum efficiency) and 180 km/h (usual cross country straight speed), with the cabin ventilation closed. From the investigation, the main conclusion is the FES propeller blades destroy the laminar flow and this causes the drag increase.
Towards a multidisciplinary optimization of a body in white including whole vehicle crashworthiness load cases: The complexity of automated evaluation shown on the example of a beam cross member
There are several reasons why parameter optimization, even in a single disciplinary content, is not yet part of the standard process for crashworthiness simulation in the automotive product development process. The most obvious reason is, that the assessment of a crashworthiness simulation is often based on a combination of hard restrictions, such as displacement values, passenger acceleration and so on and soft criteria, such as beam kinematics. Those soft criteria get evaluated visually based on engineering experience and have failed being formalized up to now. With the example of a beam cross member from the ARENA2036 project lightweight through integrated functions it is shown how the evaluation is done nowadays. Those evaluations contain patterns which will be used to formalize the soft criteria and automate the evaluation process within a CAE simulation chain.
BETA CAE Systems
Design optimization of a Free-Fall-Life-Boat (FFLB) using Fluid Structure Interaction and Kinematics analyses
George Korbetis, BETA CAE Systems
The FFLBs are used for emergency evacuation from ships and offshore structures. It is of great importance to predict the behavior of such vessels at the early design stages and assure the proper function in hazardous conditions. Critical parameters such as, occupant’s acceleration, vessel’s strength and successful moving away from the accident area have to be considered during the design and verification process.
Combined CFD and FEA algorithms are used to analyze vessel’s behavior, where numerous iterations are needed to succeed convergence including interpolation of the dynamic loads from the CFD to the FEA. However, the use of an FSI algorithm can acquire results much faster and thus the design optimization can become a realistic and cost effective approach.
In this paper, a case study of a FFLB analysis is presented using an FSI solver while a Kinematic solver calculates the initial conditions of the FSI analysis for different initial positions of the vessel.
Hydraulic Torque Converter Simulation
Andrei Voitsik, LLC Irion
A torque converter is used to transfer rotational energy from a prime mover, such as an internal combustion engine or an electric motor, to a rotating driven load. In a torque converter there are at least three rotating elements: the impeller, which is mechanically driven by the prime mover; the turbine, which drives the load; and the stator (or reactor wheel), which is interposed between the impeller and the turbine so that it can alter oil flow returning from the turbine to the impeller.
The key characteristic of a torque converter (torque ratio) is its ability to multiply torque when there is a substantial difference between input and output rotational speed, thus providing the equivalent of a reduction gear.
The goal of this project was to carry out real time simulation of the torque converter with three rotating wheels (the impeller, the turbine, the stator).
Design optimization of a main landing gear shock absorber hydraulic system
Francesco Scarano, Magnaghi Aeronautica | Vito Primavera, EnginSoft SpA | Francesco Micchetti, EnginSoft SpA
Aim of this job is the design optimization of a MLG shock absorber hydraulic system in order to guarantee the compliance with the customer performance requirements. The case study, developed through a close cooperation between Magnaghi Aeronautica and EnginSoft, allowed to evaluate positively the capacities of the software modeFRONTIER. The optimized solution is resulted to be very close to the current one obtained after a manual iterative optimization process.
FCA Italy SpA
Multibody modelling of Automatic Transmission vehicles seat-rail idle vibrations
Elena Salino, FCA Italy S.p.A. | Gabriella Lombardi, FCA Italy S.p.A. | Stefano Pizzuto, FCA Italy S.p.A. | Nicola Poerio, Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A. | Maurizio Urbinati, Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A.
Torque Converters allow automatic transmission vehicles to stop while the engine is still running without stalling.
The variable torque multiplication they perform is maximum in Idle and then progressively converges to the unity as the vehicle speed increases.
Potentially, the driveline may be isolated from the Idling torque in Drive/Reverse by means of the Neutral Idle Control (NIC), but its use may be incompatible with specific performances, primarily breakaway acceleration.
When no NIC is applied, the harmonic content of torque acting on the half-shafts, depending on the characteristics of the ICE, may couple with some natural frequencies (mainly of Powertrain, Unsprung Masses and Body) causing resonance phenomena.
In order to predict a similar behaviour, a specific simulation environment for ATx in Idle was realized using MSC ADAMS/MB Sharc software. The tool was tested on a 4-cylinder LCV application, returning good levels of correlation with experimental seat-rail vibrations.
Istanbul Technical University
Investigating the effect of ceramic materials on structural analysis of ball bearing
Rotational motion was always a challenge for industry which it caused the invention of ball bearing. It has been pass through different ways until today that we can easily use every type of rolling bearings.
Apparently the most common type of ball bearing is deep groove ball bearing because of its ability to support the higher loads. Also according to its geometry, most of the studies about simulation of ball bearing were done on deep groove ball bearing. Recent studies about simulation of ball bearing show us static analysis analysis which gives us primary information about the motion of ball bearing. According to the reviews some studies were done to reach the motion, but the final displacement of ball bearing was about 6 degrees. The aim of this study is to reach the motion of ball bearing. Eventually results are obtained in 20 degrees’ rotational displacement. The other aim of this study is to prove the better performance of hybrid bearings. Ceramic and steel materials are used in this study to reach this case.
University of Naples Federico II
A new steel light-weight lattice beam for applications into cultural heritage constructions and archeological sites
Gianmaria Di Lorenzo, University of Naples Federico II | Giovanni Chiumiento, University of Naples Federico II | Raffaele Landolfo, University of Naples Federico II
Three-dimensional lattice trusses are a highly efficient technical solution to cover large spans, espe-cially when the single members do not have intermediate restraints able to prevent lateral-torsional buckling phenomena. Hence, lattice structures are widely applied in any field of civil and industrial engineering. In the present paper, a compound structure made of lattice beams and structural glass slabs is proposed as structural system for protection of monumental and archeological sites. Due to both the risk exposure of monumental heritage to be protected and the use of structural glass, the definition of an appropriate design criterion is mandatory in order to avoid development of brittle collapse mechanisms, mainly due to static and dynamic vertical loads. The attention is herein paid to the design procedure, with a brief description of basic ideas behind the project itself and the main focus on the parametric capacity design of structural members. The proposed procedure, whose va-lidity is quite general, has been subsequently verified by linear and non-linear numerical analyses calibrated on the basis of experimental investigations carried out on both the beam material and full-scale beam prototypes.
Integrated CAE analysis for automotive DEF systems
New and more severe requirements for diesel emission can be satisfied using an additive in the exhaust system. It is called DEF (Diesel Exhaust Fluid) and is basically a water solution of urea that, through precise injection just before a dedicated catalyst converter, can reduce nitrogen oxide emission. An important step of the system implementation is the design and CAE validation of the tank and filling nozzle for DEF. In FCA this task was accomplished with a combined use of simulation tools and methodologies that are partly derived from experience on fuel system and partly novel. They cover all main performances: basic functional assessment is performed with geometric analysis; non-linear structural FEM covers pressure and vibration loads for the vehicle lifespan; finally two-phase CFD allows tank filling performance analysis. This combination allowed to greatly speed up design phases and reduce uncertainties.
Leaf seal dynamic analysis
Leaf seal is a common sealing system in gas turbines and jet engines. One of its typical applications consists in creation of sealing between the combustion chamber and the first stage nozzle, while allowing their relative motions. This kind of sealing could be subjected to rupture due to dynamic phenomena triggered by chattering, which typically occurs once partial or total contact is lost between the leaf and one of the mating components, due to system kinematics and/or dynamics (acoustic pulsations, rotordynamics, transient fluid dynamics effects). At present the common practice in BHGE seal dynamic design is a trial and error approach based on direct system testing. The present research aims at investigating leaf seal dynamic response through numerical simulations and verifying the possible occurrence of chattering. With this scope a non linear dynamic analysis has been performed on the leaf seal connecting the inner liner to the annular combustion chamber of GE Nova LT16 gas turbine.
The analysis consisted in a sensitivity study of the seal dynamic response in time domain against different static delta pressures, friction coefficients and leaf seal inclinations. Analysis revealed that friction plays a fundamental role in system damping and that the stabilized conditions at impulsive excitation are representative of the response at cyclic excitation. Results also showed that the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the leaf seal calculated through a detailed non linear approach for the stabilized conditions are the same as those computed through a simpler linear modal analysis, where actual contact status between the parts and static pre-stress are considered. Analysis also revealed that the first natural frequency of the leaf seal in all its operating and kinematic envelope is sufficiently higher than the forcing acoustic frequencies and therefore chattering does not occur whenever the contact (even partial) with nozzle and liner is being maintained.
Interactive and scalable 3D visualization of large CAE models in the cloud
Andres Rodriguez-Villa, Ceetron AS | Francesco Palloni, SmartCAE srl
Over the last years, the CAE community has very slowly shifted towards cloud-based applications. In this architecture, CAE analyses are not only computed on remote servers, but they are also pre- and post-processed through web-based applications, for which visualizing and interacting with remote 3D models is a prerequisite of success and efficiency.
The major part of today cloud application use the pixel streaming approach, where the server produces images and sends them to client devices, seen as faraway screens. This approach not only has limitations that make it uncomfortable for the end user, such as low frame-rate and delays in the interaction with the model, but it requires also large bandwidth and powerful servers with dedicated CPU and GPU to perform the remote visualization.
A new approach for remote 3D visualization of CAE models is enabled by the WebGL standard, where the server still generates the display model, but instead of rendering it and sending an image, it streams it directly as a collection of textured triangles to the client, where it is rendered and displayed using the client’s CPU and GPU, with high speed and great user experience.
Progressive 3D object streaming will become the standard “any model, anywhere on any device” solution, if it succeeds in rendering large models even on clients with limited resources. This issue will be discussed in the paper, with special interest being given to current and future work at Ceetron AS on the subject.
Wind tunnel test matrix design using CFD based DOE
Abdullah Emre Cetiner, Aselsan Inc. | İlteris Koc, Aselsan Inc.
In this study, wind tunnel test matrix of a newly developed Air-to-Ground missile is designed utilizing the Design of Experiment method based on Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations for various combinations of input parameters that are angle of attack, side-slip angle, Mach number, and the tail fin deflections. First of all, contributions of input parameters to each output (aerodynamic forces and moments) and the correlation between the inputs are identified. Then, separate Response Surface Model for each output that span the whole design space is generated to investigate the design deeper. Finally, optimal interval values for each input parameters are determined for the wind tunnel test matrix. As a result, number of runs in the test matrix was significantly reduced.
Wolf Star Technologies, LLC
Load Calculation with Measured Strain and FEA
Typical designs in structural applications undergo complex loading. In order to accurately predict
the behavior of complex structures accurate representation of loads is required. Traditional
methods of obtaining loads involve specialized load transducers and / or modification of
structures to be sensitive to specific components of load. Presented in this paper is an alternative
approach to load measurement which leverages FEA in conjunction with a physical sample to produce an n-Dimensional load transducer. Experimental verification is presented showing the correlation between measured and FEA strain calculation.
BETA CAE Srl
A dynamic finite element modell to determine in-situ biomechanics of a running shoe
Serafim Chaztimoisiadis, BETA CAE System | Evagelos Karatsis, BETA CAE System | Alexander Tsouknidas, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Macedonia | Maria Papagiannaki, School of Physical Education & Sport Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Dimitrios Sagris, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Educational Institute of Central Macedonia | Stergios Maropoulos, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Educational Institute of Western Macedonia
As a periodic motion, running generates transient forces that reach up to 2.5 times the athlete’s body mass. The transition of these loads to the runner’s lower extremities, is mitigated only by apt footwear.
This investigation introduces a dynamic Finite Element (FE) model of a running shoe, considering time varying plantar pressure distributions and boundary conditions. For this purpose, a commercial running shoe was scanned by means of a micro CT device and its gel based midsole, reverse-engineered at a 200μm accuracy. The obtained model was used to suggest improvements of material allocation within the midsole system.
Both, altered positioning and varying gel volume led to different midsole responses that could be tuned more efficiently to the specific strike pattern. The shock absorbing capacity of technical midsole systems, is critical both to athletes and patients in need of prescribed therapeutic footwear.
Advanced modeling techniques used in this study provide an effective alternative to conventional experimentation, both in the conceptual design and optimization of modern footwear.
BASF Catalysts Germany GmbH
Effective toolchain for the model based development of an EUVI exhaust aftertreatment system
Arne Kuhlmann, BASF Catalysts Germany GmbH
Today the global automotive industry faces enormous challenges from A1:R81 tightening emission legislations. Regulatory differences between European, Asian and American markets and segments enhance complexity while OEMs are constantly seeking to reduce development cycle times.
Consequently, there is continuous demand for increasingly efficient strategies to develop cost efficient solutions. BASF, as a leading global catalyst supplier, was approached by a commercial truck manufacturer to improve cost and performance of the current EUVI production exhaust aftertreatment system. Due to a very demanding timeline, the only strategic option to design suitable system proposals and to demonstrate performance under customer specific test conditions was by utilizing simulation techniques.
An effective model based development toolchain was developed building upon BASF proprietary exhaust models for accurate emission prediction complemented by modeFRONTIER for multidimensional optimization purposes. Using parallel computing, the simulation of stationary and transient tests for 500 catalytic system designs was completed within two weeks. All customer targets were met and suitable prototype candidates identified.
BETA CAE Systems
ACP-OpDesign, Optimal Design Gateway: Reveal the path to optimized products
ACP OpDesign, is an intuitive and process guided optimization desktop environment. With its optimization oriented and highly specialized user interface, based on the process depicted as a diagram in the tool, it offers to the user the capability to take advantage of an efficient, direct interaction to:
- ANSA’s powerful morphing and parametrization functionality,
- custom designed META Post-processor tools,
- Topology and parametric optimization Software,
- FEA solvers
ACP OpDesign features a list of tools designed and developed in the context of actual optimization projects.
Following step-by-step the various phases of the ACP process, these tools and capabilities of the software (ACP-OpDesign, ANSA and META) are demonstrated by means of examples.
Starting from a product design space, we apply various loads for a topology optimization analysis. The results are interpreted and transformed into a low fidelity model, which is then validated under the same loads.
It is then parametrized regarding its geometry (3D shape, position, cross section), its material and thickness, and a parametric optimization takes place. The results of this analysis are post-processed and evaluated.
Development of a numerical method for the solution of a heat conduction problem with nonstandard boundary conditions at calculation of heat change in thermal-insulating constructions with piping steam/water trace heating
Leonid Korelstein, Piping Systems Research & Engineering Co (NTP Truboprovod)
A two-dimensional stationary heat exchange problem modeling the process of heating of the pipeline with the stopped product flow by steam/water trace on a requirement of maintenance of the given temperature of a product on all length the pipeline is considered. It is proposed to solve this problem approximately by replacing it by heat conduction 2D problem in circular (product) and annular (pipe) regions with 3rd type boundary conditions with different effective heat transfer coefficients on different parts of boundary. Effective engineering solution of the later problem was obtained using Fourier series.
The approximate problems solutions and results of computer model operation are compared and the suitability of the developed method for engineering problems is shown.
Antonia Larese De Tetto
International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE)
Towards the virtual wind tunnel
Riccardo Rossi, International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE) | Rubén Zorrilla, International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE) | Roland Wüchner, Technical University of Munich | Eugenio Oñate, International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE)
The maturity of numerical techniques both in Computational Structural and Fluid Dynamics, accompanied by the availability of affordable high-performance hardware, allows the use of virtual rapid-prototyping facilities as realistic alternatives to traditional wind tunnel experiments.
This work aims to present a virtual wind tunnel tool that combines both “standard” bodyfitted approaches and innovative embedded techniques.
Two are the distinctive features of the work. Firstly, it allows the simulation of membrane structures subjected to large displacements. This is typically challenging both for embedded solvers, due to the need of modelling a strong discontinuity of the flow field in correspondence of the structural position, and for bodyfitted techniques, due to the large displacement regime. Secondly, it allows combining body fitted and embedded structures within the same simulation.
All the presented strategies are developed both in OpenMP and MPI.
Juan Pablo Leiva
Vanderplaats Research & Development, Inc.
Topology Optimization with Enforced Patterns and Applications for Additive Manufacturing
Traditional topology optimization is used by designers and engineers to generate free and often organic looking designs. These designs in some cases are possible to manufacture while in others it is not possible for either practical or esthetic reasons. For the cases where it is not possible to manufacture it is now possible to impose fabrication constraints to deal with that, for example: casting constraints can be used to allow the fabrication with molds and dies and/or the use of symmetric constraints to get aesthetically pleasant designs. Today, additive manufacturing processes are becoming more and more popular. These processes together with 3D printers are used to print lattice structures. Lattice Structures sometimes occur naturally in topology optimization but in other times they are not. For the cases where lattice are not naturally generated we can force the topology optimization process to generate them. In this paper we discuss how to enforce topology patterns to get final topology result to match certain desirable shapes that can be both easier to manufacture and/or to enforce a design requirement. The methods presented are implemented in GENESIS structural optimization software.
University of Bologna
A multi-physics approach to model a Die Assisted Oil Quenching process
Giampaolo Campana, University of Bologna | Andrea Zanotti, Proterm S.p.A,
Quenching processes consist of a drastic cooling, from a high temperature, a nearly finished mechanical part in order to achieve the expected material performances. The rapid cooling changes material microstructures by typically enhancing mechanical properties but inducing distortions and residual stresses too.
The Die Assisted Oil Quenching (DAOQ) technique allows the heat treatment of a steel mechanical component though the use of a quickly cooled die, which applies a pressure on the part during the quenching. Through an accurate control of the cooling conditions, this process lay-out permits the reduction of distortions.
A challenging task is the modelling of the DAOQ process with the usage of a multi-physics approach including heat exchange, fluid dynamics, metallurgical aspects, volume variations and residual stresses prediction. The paper presents an investigation concerning a multi-physics model implementation of the DAOQ process. The simulated components were discs and rings characterized by specific diameter ratios. The tuning and validation of the model was achieved by comparing calculated displacements with real measurements.
1D automotive cooling system simulation: from Internal Combustion Engine to Battery Electrical Vehicles
Development of more and more efficient Internal Combustion Engine cars has been supporting in the last decades by extensive simulations. Most notably, both engine combustion and performances studies were influenced by availability of 1d simulation codes, whose capabilities were extended to take care of vehicles cooling systems.
At the beginning of 21th century a new competition in transportation market is rising between Internal Combustion Engine and Electrical Engine vehicles: car manufacturers need now additional knowledge to handle different thermal behavior of electrical and fuel tractions. A comparison study is performed to translate classical engine cooling 1d simulation models into suitable models to investigate Battery Electric Vehicle behaviour, underline similarities and differences, lay down model set up rules and suggest future improvements.
University of PISA
Simplified optimization methodologies for complex geometries: application to an automotive duct system
Marco Maganzi, University of Pisa
In automotive design, new optimization procedures, which can improve system internal aerodynamics, are needed. In this field of application, the challenge is to avoid the typical complicate geometry parameterisation and to modify the shape complaining with space constraints.
In this paper two simplified optimization processes, with the aim of increase HVAC system efficiency, by means of reducing ducts total pressure drop and increase outlet flow uniformity, are shown. The first one is driven by ANSA® optimisation tool and consists in generating many new duct designs, using the ANSA mesh morphing tool and to soving the flow with ANSYS Fluent®. The second one uses ANSYS Fluent adjoint solver.
The final procedure couples both the methodologies in order to obtain a more efficient and faster methodology. This optimization method is applied to a real car system duct. The results of the optimised procedures are examined and compared with the original one, showing an impressive reduction in the pressure drop and improvement in flow quality.
The use of acoustic techniques to detect water intrusion in submarine pipelines and monitor pipeline flooding part II – dedicated CFD simulations
Paolo Monti, Saipem SpA | Lorenzo Bucchieri, EnginSoft SpA | Paolo Catena, Saipem SpA | Natalia Pierozzi, Saipem SpA
The laying of submarine pipelines is an offshore operation that continues to be defined by its challenging technological features. Indeed, current projects may involve the installation of submarine pipelines along routes extending over hundreds of kilometres or at water depths in excess of 2000 m. Sometimes the two requirements are coupled.
While submarine pipelines are usually laid empty, water ingress cannot be excluded as a consequence of accidental events. Progressive pipeline flooding can represent a significant risk, both for pipeline operations and for the safety of the laybarge performing them. Consequently, both water ingress and the ensuing pipeline flooding need to be detected and tracked in real time in order to support the remedial actions being implemented on board the laybarge.
Saipem has developed a tool, the Integrated Acoustic Unit (IAU), based on a non-invasive acoustic technology (reflectometry). The IAU is capable of localizing obstacles (e.g. pigs, inline items) or pipe deformations, and of detecting and tracking any intrusion of water. The use of this acoustic technology to detect and track water intrusion is presented in a separate paper.
The efficiency of the technology can be heavily affected by the presence of laying tools in the pipeline, an obstacle that in turn can generate a spurious acoustic wave reflection, on the one hand, and muffle acoustic wave propagation throughout the pipeline, on the other.
This detrimental effect on the performance of the acoustic technology can be significant if a laying tool is located in proximity to the water ingress. In such cases, the tool can act as a “cork” for the water’s propagation, resulting in an additional obstacle for acoustic wave propagation which then further reduces the performance of the acoustic technology, potentially down to a level that makes its use totally ineffective.
This paper presents a CFD simulation which was performed to study water ingress in detail and to quantify additional obstacles to its propagation. Reference is made to a realistic pipelaying scenario and accidental event.
Clovis R. Maliska
Federal University of Santa Catarina
A robust strategy for solving fluid flow coupled with geomechanics in petroleum reservoirs
Hermínio T. Honório, Federal University of Santa Catarina | Jurandir Coelho Jr., Federal University of Santa Catarina
In petroleum reservoir simulation, the traditional approach for solving the fluid flow coupled with geomechanics is the use of different numerical methods for each physic. The fluid flow, by instance, is solved using finite volume techniques, while the rock mechanics uses finite element methods, due to its large experience in solving solid mechanics problems. The key question is that these two problems are solved in different software, with different algorithms and with different grids. In a 3D problem one has four unknowns, pore pressure and the three displacements one in each coordinate direction. This strategy, widely used in the petroleum industry, requires that this data be interpolated and transfer among the softwares in an iterative way. In this paper it presented a novel approach, whereby both problems are solved using only a finite volume method in the same unstructured grid, avoiding interpolation and iterations between the two algorithms. An alternative for alleviating the pressure oscillations encountered in these problems is also advanced using a similar technique applied for the pressure-velocity coupling in the Naviers-Stokes equations, which resembles the coupling between pressure –displacement in geomechanical problems.
Additive Manufacturing Tool Optimization Platform
Federico Valente | ITACAe S.r.l.
Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies would undoubtedly help meeting new and competitive industrial needs, such as production of lightweight and customized components. New methodologies of Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) and relative CAx tools are the key enabling technologies allowing to get the major benefits from these advanced technologies. The current tendency by software developers is to preserve their main purpose while adding features for AM. Nonetheless, it is more and more evident that an increased integration would lead to a more efficient design and engineering workflow.
In this paper, a novel integrated platform for AM design is proposed, and results of a workflow based on it are illustrated. Starting from geometrical, functional and structural product specifications, the platform includes a topological optimization phase, new geometry construction, automatic FEM discretization. After FEA validation of the new geometry, optimal orientation is found and supports are created related to the component. The presented platform is the first step towards a fully integrated product & process design & engineering workflow.
Costs-Benefits analysis of different seismic retrofit solutions applied to a medium span bridge
Alessandro Contin, E2B srl
The aim of the study is a FEM analysis of the behavior of different seismic retrofit methods applied to a medium span bridge. The most common devices such as elastomeric isolators, pendulum isolators, fluid viscous and hysteretic dampers are compared in terms of economic and structural benefits.
Numerical simulation of electromagnetic stirring in steelmaking industry
Francois Bay, MINES Paristech | Elie Hachem, MINES Paristech
Electromagnetic stirring is widely used in casting industry in order to control the flow of molten metal and the final properties of the piece. Stirring allows keeping the temperature uniform and avoiding segregation, leading to a better quality of the final product. In continuous casting, it also decreases the turbulence in the melt, decreasing the possibilities of a breakdown. However an efficient design is not easy since experimental data are difficult and expensive to obtain and analytical models are way too simplified to be used in industrial applications. Hence, numerical simulations are the most common tool to support the design process; the main disadvantage is the high computational cost required to perform the simulation which is strongly multiphysical. The aim of this work is to develop a set of numerical tools able to accurately model electromagnetic stirring applications with a low use of computational resources.
The numerical scheme used for the computation is based on the “Two Mesh Two Solvers Approach” discussed in [1,2]: the electromagnetic fields are solved by Matelec® (developed in the Lab) on a specific mesh, while the thermomechanical analyses are carried out using Thercast ® using a different mesh and domain. The mechanical fields are solved using a stabilized VMS method enhanced with anisotropic mesh adaptation . The common coupling scheme (“one way coupling”) has been enhanced and a weak-two-way coupling strategy has been implemented between the electromagnetic and the mechanical solver. Strong coupling has been judged non-efficient because it does not lead to a significant increase in the accuracy and because it is computationally too expensive for industrial applications.
Ducati Motor Holding s.p.a. - Ducati Corse Division
Virtual Development of a crank mechanism for a Moto GP engine using latest modeling techniques
Gianluca Calli, Ducati Motor Holding s.p.a. - Ducati Corse Division | Davide Barana, Ducati Motor Holding s.p.a. - Ducati Corse Division | Pietro Bianchi, Leonardo Engineers for Integration S.r.l.
High performance engines need to ensure a high specific power together with lightweight and reliability. The reduced time available from design to practical usage often restricts the experimental tests. The result is that numerical simulations are frequently the only step between a CAD geometry and the real part working on track.
For this reason a new version of a motorcycle engine’s crankshaft has been calculated with the co-simulation between the two software Ricardo Engdyn and Valdyn. The former has been used to simulate the dynamics of cranktrain and cylinder block, the latter to simulate the drive line and timing. In fact, because of the motorcycle lay-out, the primary gear and all the transmission until the brake of the test bench need to be modelled.
The final result is the determination of the safety factors in the crankshaft’s main and pin fillets. The most complete FEM stress analysis integrated in Engdyn has been used.
UNIVERSITY OF Salento
Risk Mitigation for Unmaned Air Vehicles Mission Planning
Giulio Avanzini, University of Salento | Vito Primavera, EnginSoft SpA | Francesco Micchetti, EnginSoft SpA | Silvano Pagone, Aeroporti di Puglia
In recent years the use of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) rapidly expanded from mainly military and research applications to a very wide range of applications in civil activities. At the same time, UAVs became accessible to a wide range of users. Therefore, determination and mitigation of the risk they can represent to people in the event of a ground impact is a key point for the development of UAV regulations in the civil airspace. The present work (developed into the co-funded project “TAKE-OFF - Test and Knowledge‐based Environment for Operations, Flight and Facility”, whose frame is the “Cluster Tecnologici Regionali - SmartPuglia 2020, Regione Puglia”) introduces a path planning methodology where the risk related to UAV operation is reduced by estimating the probability of hitting a person on the ground, assuming a map of the population density in the area interested by the flight is available. The impact area on the ground is evaluated both in a deterministic way – which depends on vehicle dimensions and kinetic energy – and in a statistical way – where uncertainties of the navigation parameters (position and velocity) are introduced. The impact areas are then related to vehicle failure rate and to a real population density map, resulting in a reliable risk evaluation. Once the relation between the nominal vehicle trajectory and corresponding risk level is defined, a suitable multi-objective optimization process is developed, searching for the optimum solutions that minimize path length and risk, the latter being constrained below a prescribed maximum admissible value. The whole path planning methodology has been built according to recognized authority rules.
The use of acoustic techniques to detect water intrusion in submarine pipelines and monitor pipeline flooding part I – main operating and numerical aspects
Diana Magnabosco, EnginSoft SpA | Paolo Catena, Saipem SpA | Natalia Pierozzi, Saipem SpA | Lorenzo Bucchieri, EnginSoft SpA
The laying of submarine pipelines is an offshore operation that continues to be defined by its challenging technological features. Indeed, current projects may involve the installation of submarine pipelines along routes extending over hundreds of kilometres or at water depths in excess of 2000 m. Sometimes the two requirements are coupled.
While submarine pipelines are usually laid empty, water ingress cannot be excluded as a consequence of accidental events. Progressive pipeline flooding can represent a significant risk, both for pipeline operations and for the safety of the laybarge performing them. Consequently, both water ingress and the ensuing pipeline flooding need to be detected and tracked in real time in order to support the remedial actions implemented on board the laybarge.
Saipem has developed a tool, the Integrated Acoustic Unit (IAU), based on a non-invasive acoustic technology. The IAU is capable of localizing obstacles (e.g. pigs, inline items) or pipe deformations, and of detecting and tracking any intrusion of water through the measurement of the wave reflection it produces. Different numerical and analytical methods and softwares have been developed in-house to convert the acoustic wave reflection into a measurement of pipe obstruction or deformation and track pipeline flooding.
This paper first of all introduces the main operational aspects associated with the laying of submarine pipelines. These include the requirements for managing accidental events such as the water ingress and progressive pipeline flooding, and the use of the acoustic technology needed to detect and track any intrusion. It then discusses the numerical activities that support the detection of the water ingress and the tracking of the pipeline flooding from the measurement of the acoustic wave reflection.
University of Padova
Structural optimization of a component for the power transmission of a Formula-SAE car
Giovanni Meneghetti, University of Padova | Fabiano Maggio, EnginSoft SpA | Federico Andrea Bologna, EnginSoft SpA| Adriano Bernardi, Sisma spa
This research project aims at fully exploiting the potential of Additive Manufacturing technologies in the re-design of a component of the FSAE UNIPD car transmission. By using the topological optimization program Genesis GTAM®, a geometrical configuration has been defined, followed by a second-step optimisation phase performed by using MODEfrontier in conjunction with Ansys Workbench. Mass minimisation while maintaining static as well as fatigue strength were the objective and the constraints, respectively. Further to the design phase, the component will be additively manufactured. Finally, the prototype will be tested at the test bench at the University of Padova by applying the spectrum loading acquired in the track.
University of Weimar
ModeFRONTIER for the Optimal Design of Electrical Machines
Timon Rabczuk, Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus University Weimar
Scientific optimization has become a popular term in the modern design of electrical machines. Due to the current competitive and dynamic market, and the increasing importance of energy efficiency and energy conservation, the design optimization of electrical machines has become an essential strategy for research and development. Yet the multi-disciplinary, multiobjective, high-dimensional, nonlinear, and coupled nature of the electrical machines’ design optimization poses a great challenge to the research communities. Nevertheless, the recent advanced algorithms for multiobjective optimization and multiple-criteria decision analysis have been empowering designers to push the existing boundaries of electrical machines design in dealing with the complexity for the novel concepts and innovative designs. This paper presents a state of the art survey on the advancements of the novel optimization tools and applications, and further demonstrates the ability of modeFrontier in this realm.
University of Weimar
Reviewing the Multiobjective Optimization Package of modeFRONTIER in Energy Sector
The multiobjective optimization (MOO) software package of modeFrontier has recently become popular within industries, academics and research communities. Today, universities as well as research institutes are using modeFrontier optimization toolboxes for teaching and research proposes around the world. One of the reason behind the popularity of the package, is the way it utilizes the available resources in an efficient and integrated manner and providing multidimensional post-processing tools. The user-friendly design optimization environment of modeFrontier integrates various optimization methods with the major computer aided engineering codes and commercial numerical analysis tools. Among the wide range of applications of modeFrontier, the energy sector, particularly, has been highly benefiting from the advancements in design optimization. This article presents the state of the art survey of the novel applications of modeFrontier in this realm.
Carlo Augusto Pasquinucci
University of Genova
A fast optimization algorithm based on sparse free form deformation and surrogate surfaces for greener ship design
This project would show a methodology that can reduce the number of designs required for optimization improving its democratization. The framework is created connecting a parametric CAD Software CAESES, a commercial BEM Solver ShipFlow, a free optimizer DAKOTA and some Python scripts.
It begins with an exploration phase of different hull geometries calculating some geometrical coefficients and the resistance at different speeds.
Then, a surrogate surface is created between these coefficients and the resistance. This surface is now independent from the original design variables: different deformations can now by applied.
A Sparse Free Form Deformation can now be used for the optimization phase.
The number of design variables is kept lower as possible, increasing their number only once the best designs possible with that set are reached: no time or computational power is lost for very detailed variations in the first phases, but the accuracy of the deformation follows the design performance increasing.
Key to Metals AG
New developments in a database of advanced material properties for CAE use
This paper describes innovative elements in a large database of advanced material properties for metallic materials, and recently polymers, ceramics, composites, foams and other non-metallic materials, aimed at serving the global engineering community with mechanical and physical properties needed for CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) calculations and simulations.
These advanced material properties have been divided to (1) stress-strain curves, (2) formability, (3) cyclic properties, (4) fracture mechanics, and (5) creep properties. Besides collecting and consolidating information for more than 40.000 materials and 200.000 datasets from more than 2.000 references, a specific set of algorithms has also been developed for assessing properties under various experimental conditions, service temperature, and heat treatment.
The paper will provide an insight into newly developed algorithms and functionalities, such as comparing materials and their properties, material selection, and special reverse engineering identification. Also, new data export functionalities and integration possibilities with CAE tools will be presented.
Valve CFD comparison between ANSYS CFX and CONSELF
Roberta Messina, Tecnohit | Fabio Zanoletti, Tecnohit
INTRODUCTION In recent years and thanks to cloud computing development, a certain number of companies are proposing tools to simulate directly from your own browser using remote hardware resources. In many cases, these tools are user-interfaces that allows an easy management of open-source software such as OpenFOAM. As one may expect, given the popularity of both CFX and OpenFOAM, many comparisons already exists such as ,  and . Beside this, given the high number of users of OpenFOAM there are comparisons between OpenFOAM with experimental results, such as .
In the abovementioned tools, the presence of a user-interface actually limits the choices available in standard OpenFOAM in terms of boundary conditions and numerical schemes in particular, rising a new need of results validation for these modern tools.
SOFTWARE The software used for the current comparison are ANSYS CFX v18.1 and CONSELF v2.9.2, one of the abovementioned cloud providers based on CFD solver OpenFOAM v4.1.
GEOMETRY AND MESH The geometry considered is a simple bulb valve where pressure drop calculation is the main simulation drive. Given the geometry in STEP format two different meshes have been defined for the two solvers. With the possibilities offered by both systems, parameters were chosen in order to produce a similar quality mesh in both cases. A tetrahedral meshing algorithm has been chosen, with boundary layer treatment in both cases (5 layers with a first wall height of 8.0E-4 m) calculated to maintain y+ in the acceptable range for the used turbulence model. Mesh surface dimension is 2.0E-3 m, resulting in about 1 million elements in both configurations.
CFD ANALYSIS The CFD analysis is an incompressible steady flow at Re ⋍ 100 000. Four different boundaries are applied according to the following scheme: velocity inlet, pressure outlet, symmetry and wall. Turbulence is taken into account using a standard k-ε model . In order to reduce as much as possible the boundaries effects on the valve results, inlet and outlet boundaries are placed at least 5 times farther than dh - hydraulic diameter.
NUMERICAL SCHEMES The main difference between the two simulation software used is the numerical schemes used. CONSELF, based on OpenFOAM, can be described as a collocated software where variables are solved in segregated way with a SIMPLE pressure-velocity coupling is implemented . From the numerical point of view, gradient reconstruction is computed using a linear Gauss hypothesis, whilst the convective schemes uses a second order linear-upwind scheme, bounded to improve stability. Viscosity flows are limited, for the sake of stability, not to exceed the orthogonal contribution. From the algebraic point of view, two solvers are used: algebraic multi-grid for the continuity equation and Gauss-Seidel for all the other variables. CFX is a pressure-velocity coupled software. The reconstruction of the gradient term is computed using finite-element-shape functions. The convective term is computed using the High-Resolution-Scheme , that is a bounded scheme.
As said before, the main global result to be considered in the simulation is the pressure drop, calculated as the difference of static pressure at the inlet and at the outlet. Given this global parameter, further investigation on local variables are considered, such as pressure and velocity across the valve.
ANSYS CFX | CONSELF OPENFOAM - 922.38 | 1156.38
EXTRA CONTENTS IN FINAL PAPER The final paper is going to provide further details beside those here reported. A more advanced mesh comparison (also in terms of mesh quality, skewness and orthogonality) is necessary to provide a general overview of the results. Extra results post-processing will be provided in terms of graph comparisons, extracting velocity profiles at different locations.
LINCOSIM: a Web App for Automatic Hull Design on HPC Platforms
Francesco Salvadore, CINECA | Claudio Arlandini, CINECA
In this work, we present an innovative web application dedicated to the design process of planing hulls by means of CFD runs. The LINCOSIM web application is developed within the EU funded project LINCOLN (http://www.lincolnproject.eu/).
LINCOLN is an EU Horizon 2020 research project of 36 month duration (1st October 2016 – 30th September 2019, Grant Agreement No 727982) using innovative design methodologies and tools for the development of three types of completely new vessels concepts through dynamic simulation model testing in the maritime sector.
The web user interface includes expressive WebGL 3D visualizations and allows to prepare, start and analyze the simulations starting from the hull geometry and a few physical parameters, the web services automatically managing the interaction with computing machines.
The CFD undergoing engine is developed using OpenFOAM enabling to solve the 3D Navier-Stokes equation including dynamic mesh motion (free sink and trim) in a cost/effective way.
The preliminary results in terms of repetability, usability and robustness are encouraging; a full set of validation test to assess accuracy are ongoing.
MARELLI MOTORI SPA
Improving efficiency while reducing cost of electrical motors and generators: multiphysics simulations are the way to hit the target
Power generation is day-by-day becoming more competitive, reliable and eco-friendly. Marelli Motori is focused on innovation, aiming to match the market needs (Hydro, Cogeneration, O&G etc) increasing efficiency, reliability and lowering environmental footprint of Its Generators and Electric motors.
The achievement of these targets must be done with cost reduction: overly expensive products means “unsaleable”.
By that, the needing to develop multiphysics simulations on all the components: Structural analysis for strength and deformations, Dynamic analysis for the operating behavior, CFD and Thermal studies on cooling efficiency. Everything accompanied by the decreasing of costs on product development and shorting time-to-market. The ability to face these engineering challenges has considerably improved since spring 2016th when Marelli Motori decided to move to ANSYS products exploiting the potential of IoT which inspired the “IoS”: Internet of Simulations.
Numerous complex simulations with ANSYS have been developed to achieve best-in-class Generators. Structural simulations have turned their attention to the frame, the shield, the fan and the shaft which have been optimized to reduce the weights, always keeping in foreground mechanical safety and reliability. The rotor, the fan and the stator have been involved to reach the optimum-point between cost reduction and thermal efficiency. In fact, the design arises from Structural and CFD calculations to increase cooling efficiency and thermal exchange, lowering hot-spots inside the Generator with the purpose to maximize power output and minimize costs. Everything has been integrated with Dynamic simulations: Modal Analysis to find Natural frequencies and subsequent Harmonic Response according to operating conditions. These simulations ensure mechanical reliability of the GenSet also working in exceptional loading conditions. A key role in the drastic reduction of development times has been played by SpaceClaim: defeaturing, 3D Modeling as well as the ease of handling geometric parameterization inside Workbench interface, allowed to manage modifications very quickly. What about dead times?
Often the CAE analyst launches simulations, but needs to go to the Test Room, on a meeting or in another Company headquarter without the possibility to check the trend of convergence nor to modify parameters. “IoS concept” is based on a simple smartphone connected on VPN, a dedicated APP with notifications about the simulation status and the possibility to manage only many Key parameters via Remote Control. This means Zero additional costs and considerable time saved.
Multiphysics simulations extended to the different aspects of Generators allowed to reach the best result for each single component. The merge among the knowledge of Marelli Motori and ANSYS products were key to achieve valuable results to grow up the competitiveness of products in the worldwide market. Increased efficiency, cost reduction of components, reduced development time have been done for different product-series. Final results can be synthetized by the ratio “Power output over Final cost” which in many cases raised up to a double digit percentage improvement.
This Engineering project has been posted in the top-ten “Ansys Hall of Fame Competition 2017-Commercial Entry”.
University of Roma "Tor Vergata"
Hemo-Elastic study of ascending thoracic aorta aneurysms through RBF mesh morphing
Emiliano Costa, RINA Consulting S.p.A. | Marco E. Biancolini, University of Roma "Tor Vergata" | Katia Capellini, BioCardioLab, Fondazione CNR-Regione Toscana "G. Monasterio" | Simona Celi, BioCardioLab, Fondazione CNR-Regione Toscana "G. Monasterio"
The present paper aims at describing an approach to perform parametric fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analyses of healthy subjects with ascending thoracic aorta aneurysms (aTAA). Such numerical studies are performed through ANSYS® Workbench™ and foresee the use of both computational structural mechanics (CSM) and computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) software to handle the FSI task according to the two-way approach, and of a mesh morphing technique implemented in the RBF Morph™ ACT™ Extension, based on the radial basis functions (RBF) mathematical framework, to apply the shape variations in the respect of aneurysm shape growth. Both 3D surface models of healthy subjects and mean boundary conditions data for performing CFD simulations are obtained from 3D phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) acquisition, whilst the material properties of the aortic wall are modelled adopting an isotropic and hyperelastic model.
MAGNA Powertrain - Engineering Center Steyr GmbH & Co KG
Fatigue assessment of multi-axially loaded elastomeric components using load discretization and channel based fatigue method
Stefan Kaindl, MAGNA Powertrain - Engineering Center Steyr GmbH & Co KG
A new method for predicting the fatigue strength of multi-axially loaded elastomeric components was implemented. The method is based on the local S/N curves concept which basically compares local stresses with material-specific strength values. The nonlinear characteristics of the elastomeric material are measured from specimens. An appropriate material model is chosen to simulate correct deformations and resulting local stresses. Additionally fatigue strength parameters like mean stress influence are defined for the fatigue analysis. Finally, investigations on a commercial vehicle engine mount under multi-axial load are shown as an application and verification of the simulation method. The analysis shows good agreement with test bench results.
El Arem Raja
High School of Energy Engineering
CFD simulation of a household refrigerator integrating a PCM heat exchanger
Mellouli Sofiene, High School of Energy Engineering | Abdelmajid Jemni, High School of Energy Engineering
A numerical investigation was carried out to improve the energy efficiencyof a household refrigerator by integrating a Phase Change Material (PCM) to accumulate thermal energy and stabilize the temperature in the refrigerator compartment. A novel design of PCM heat exchanger is proposed in this investigation. The experimental results indicate that by integrating this novel PCM heat exchanger, power consumption is reduced by 12% and the COP is increased by 8% compared to the refrigerator without PCM. In order to identify the best performing designs among various cases of refrigerator compartments placed with PCM, 2D unsteady state CFD simulations were made. For all the cases, the household refrigerator was simulated to study the influence of the PCM emplacement on the temperature and velocity fields. The computational results indicate that using PCM emplacements on the evaporator, walls, and in the racks of the refrigerator compartments has a significant influence to stabilize and homogenize rapidly the temperature (86.66% improvement over the basic configuration ). However, there is a limit beyond which increasing PCM coverage in the racks more than 75% does not lead to any significant improvements.
University of Bergamo
Aerodynamic simulation of a 2017 F1 car with open-source CFD code
Reliability Growth model for a diode laser-based tape winding machine
Angelo Merlo, Mach4Lab srl | Martin Schäkel, Fraunhofer - Institute for Production Technology (IPT) | Tido Peters, Fraunhofer - Institute for Production Technology (IPT) | Francesco Aggogeri, Mach4Lab srl
Considering the key role played by maintenance related costs in the operative life of machine tools, Reliability issues must be addressed starting from the very beginning of the system design. In this framework is here proposed a statistical model, based on Reliability Growth Analysis, aimed at improve the mean life of the system components. This kind of analysis is no common practice in machinery and the model here proposed is applied to a laser-based tape winding machine, currently at prototype stage. Failure data, collected according to a systematic procedure during the machine test-find-fix-test trials, are analyzed using Reliasoft Synthesis Platform according to a Crown/AMSAA based extended model. Actual and projected Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) are calculated through simulations of various scenarios and the Growth Potential of the system is assessed. Improvements based on reasonable effectiveness factors are suggested to increase reliability performances of the machine.
Prediction of the overall performance of a centrifugal pump by means of a CFD simulation
Bruno Schiavello, Flowserve | Davide Pirola, Flowserve
Centrifugal pumps are the most commonly used in different industrial fields like power generation, oil & gas, chemical plants, desalination, pipeline, water treatment, agriculture, automotive, aerospace, and domestic applications. On the other hand, centrifugal pumps are a very complex type of turbomachines in which mechanical energy is converted into pressure energy by means of blades action and angular momentum change. The design of a large size centrifugal pump with conflictual requirements from customized specifications is a hard engineering challenge. To design and develop a centrifugal pump, it is very important to have a long experience and ability to predict the final performance with good accuracy. The design can be very complex because the flow in a centrifugal pump is turbulent, three dimensional and time-dependent. The primary purpose of this paper is to show a comparison between numerical analysis performed by means of a commercial code and the experimental results obtained during the testing phase of a very large in-line centrifugal pump, including suction casing – double suction impeller – double volute – discharge branch diffuser. The key focus will be in the comparison between test measurements and numerical results in term of overall performance (head, power and efficiency) as verification and validation of the CFD simulation for future applications. Different turbulent models and mesh strategy was analyzed in the paper and a comparison between numerical results will be proposed.
SUPSI - DTI - MEMTi
AA – CAES plant modelling in Simscape
Alessandro Pizzoferrato, SUPSI - DTI - MEMTi | Viola Becattini, ETH Zürich | Andreas Haselbacher, ETH Zürich | Giw Zanganeh, ALACAES | Maurizio C. Barbato, SUPSI - DTI - MEMTi
Electric energy storage is becoming of paramount importance for the future. A viable alternative to pumped hydro plants, in terms of both power and energy storage capacity, is given by Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (AA-CAES) plants. These systems can store electric energy via thermal and mechanical energy storage. In fact, electric energy feeds a motor that runs a compressor; the high-pressure hot air obtained is cooled with a thermal energy storage (TES) and than stocked into a cavern. When electric energy is requested by the grid, the high-pressure air is extracted from the cavern, heated passing through the TES and than expanded into a turbine-generator power block.
A Matlab-Simscape model was developed to simulate the dynamic behaviour of AA-CAES plants. Temperature dependent air properties, efficiency maps for turbomachinery and realistic power ramps were implemented. Moreover, the model is coupled with a 1D Fortran code, which models the detailed dynamics of a packed-bed TES. Model validation against experimental data and performance simulation for a full scale plant working for a typical week are presented.
AR4CAD, a CAD-based framework for the creation of assembly assistants that make use of augmented reality
AR4CAD makes use of the CAD description of a complex object and of CAD tools to support the efficient design of the storyboard of the virtual assembly of that object; then, starting from this storyboard, a specific assembly assistant, based on augmented reality (AR) techniques, is automatically generated.
The assistant supports the operator during the assembly by:
• guiding him through the appropriate sequence of steps of the process;
• recognizing the individual objects being handled (without the need of specific markers) and eventually checking their size;
• providing the information required to mount component parts in the right place and position. This is done primarily by properly overlaying virtual companion parts aside the image of an anchor object being captured by the camera or by overlaying a completely virtual assembly animation over this same anchor;
• verifying (to some extent) that assembly steps are performed correctly.
The system, developed so far in prototype form, makes use of a camera observing the work space (in practice a table). An additional camera located at a known distance from the bench surface is used for precise measurements.
Robert Bosch Gmbh
Rapid reconfiguration of flexible production systems
Marcello Colledani, Politecnico di Milano - Dipartimento di Meccanica | Giovanni Paolo Borzi, EnginSoft SpA
A novel capability-based approach is presented, enabling to design production systems from mechatronic objects and to adapt production systems capabilities based on the workpiece requirements.
This approach facilitates the automatic matching between workpiece requirements and resource capabilities, therefore enabling two important phases: new production system designs (green-field design phase) and online reconfiguration management of operational systems (i.e., production and reconfiguration planning). Moreover, it provides the basis for the auto-programming of the mechatronic objects for required tasks, therefore enabling rapid reconfiguration of the system according to product requirements.
The developments support the integrated design and operation of future production systems that allow quick, cost-efficient set-up and the fast integration of new product variants.
Heating system modelling for water based on electromagnetic induction
Carlo De Falco, Politecnico di Milano | Paolo Ferrandi, Moxoff Spa
A system based on electromagnetic induction to heat water for domestic purposes has been studied. The device consists of an inner ferromagnetic pipe surrounded by insulator layers with an outer coil where alternating current flows. As different physics and time scales are involved, sophisticated multiphysics numerical and modeling are required. Thanks to the hypothesis of long solenoid and tightly packed windings, the electromagnetic problem is 1D in the radial coordinate and is described by Ampere’s law. In the thermal model the temperature depends on the axial coordinate and the mean power of the eddy currents is a constant generation term in the conduction equation since the voltage variation is much faster than heat transfer. The overall system is discretized using the finite element method and implemented in Octave, showing good agreement with experimental measures. Simulations have been performed varying the main design parameters, in both stationary and transient conditions.
Ahmet Mert Soyer
Development of new metallic rear crash boxes to replace a plastic one for a passenger car
Levent Aksel, TOFAS | İbrahim Ozbay, TOFAS
This study includes a development of metallic rear crash box in order to replace plastic one for a passenger car. New developed crash box should pass low speed and high speed tests in order to meet the required performance for its market. During this study the greatest difficulty that we have is to have the required performance in AZT analysis. Since force-displacement behaviour of honeycomb shaped plastics grow up gradually and absorb the energy uniformly without exceeding the maximum force limit not to have plastic deformations on BIW, having the same performance for this analysis with metallic components is quite hard. Because metallic crash boxes have a reaction force very steep in the beginning which tends to decrease afterwards due to the hinge effect of metals. In order to get rid of this disadvantage of metals, another smaller and shorter metallic crash box is used inside to get an energy absorbtion gradually and uniformly without having hinge effect. In this way, during crash rigid barrier has a contact with outer crash box and before having the hinge effect it reaches another crash box inside. This results in a uniform reaction force curve without reaching high values.
University of Salento
Non-conventional configurations for small satellites launchers
Elio De Marinis, EnginSoft SpA
The topic of the work is to evaluate the energetic cost of non-conventional launch systems dedicated for small satellites. Launch configurations such as ground launch, balloon launch and airborne launch to orbit are considered for different class of satellites and for different orbit altitudes; the analysis is focused on minimizing the booster’s initial mass once set the payload.
When considering a balloon, a trade-off is required in order to evaluate properly the altitude to be reached from the balloon and the mass it has to lift off. For the airborne launcher, there is a tradeoff between carrier aircraft’s flight conditions; operational limits are analyzed and discussed.
Moreover a brief cost analysis is performed in order to evaluate properly pros and cons of each configuration.
Piaggio & C. SpA
CAE investigation of a motorbike powertrain's NVH behavior
A multibody model was generated to simulate the dynamic behavior of the full powertrain system of a motorbike.
The model was used to assess the efficiency of design modifications conceived to improve the powertrain's NVH performance.
The model includes the cranktrain, the gearbox, the rear transmission system and a simulacrum of the vehicle. Nonlinear components are present, such as rubber shock absorbers. Flexible bodies are included, described according to the Craig-Bampton technique.
The whole model is subject to the pressure time-histories in the combustion chambers. Detailed gear-to-gear interfaces are included, to simulate dynamic contact conditions.
The simulated maneuvers are clutch engagement/disengagement cycles, which can induce external noise. Different designs were simulated as for the geometry of the secondary gears, to try to reduce the impact energy which induces surface vibrations of the gearbox, which in turn provokes the external noise.
The quantity used to rank the designs was the RMS value of the torque transmitted through hooke joints in the rear part of the transmission system. This quantity allows a more robust ranking of the designs when compared with the use of impact forces, which are more subject to numeric noise. Besides that, test data are available for the torque, so a test/model comparison could be carried out.
The model was also used to assess the efficiency of a dynamic shock absorber, whose operation is based on the combined effect of cams and springs. The characterization of some springs required non linear FEM simulations, due to the lack of test data. The above mentioned torque RMS value has been used to assess the shock absorber efficiency too.
The model was generated using a template-based software; the resulting modular structure of the model will allow re-uses of its subsystems for different purposes, e.g., assessment of the structural performance of engine components under durability bench tests.
Having investigated the noise source via the MBS model, FEM analyses were carried out to evaluate the transmission properties of different crankcase configurations. The results were weighted with a loudness index specifically conceived from the ISO equal-loudness curves.
Prometech Software, Inc.
Estimation of Reliability and Recent Progress of Particle Method MPS
Particle method is one of powerful technique on numerical simulation to treat complex engineering problems in the manufacturing industries. In general, particle method is classified as mesh free method and used for the problems on which application of conventional mesh-based CFD software is difficult. Particle-based simulation software Particleworks adopts one of major particle method MPS (Moving Particle Simulation) and has been used widely in production design and development. Especially, Particleworks is used for the simulation of oil flow and lubrication in power train (engine blocks, gear boxes, and so on) and wading/flooded road driving in automotive industry. However, MPS is a relatively new numerical method and the accuracy and the error estimation of this method should be investigated to obtain reliable results through the simulation. For this purpose, numerical verification of MPS method is discussed using simple examples in this presentation. And new features implemented in the latest version of Particleworks are introduced.
Collecting, processing and applying data in the process of gravity brewing as part of a smart factory
The companies are starting to utilize connectivity in many ways, from automatic material ordering through to cloud-based software control. The premise behind Industry 4.0 is to take this one step further by connecting not just one machine but also the whole factory so it communicates as one entity. To achieve this there is one more key element needed - the Industrial Internet of Things - and this boils down to creating smart devices/machines that communicate with each other and the outside world. In this paper we will show how data is used in the gravity die casting process in order to optimize the production process. The analyzed parameters are the flow of refrigerant media, temperature and pressure, where monitoring of the value can affect the reduction of scrap and improve the overall quality of the casting and final products. Since the process is automated, data can be captured at any moment and thus obtains a precise process image with continuous data collection and archiving.
MITICA Beam Source Vessel Welding Assessment
Susanna Donà, Studio tecnico ing. Donà Susanna – integrated engineering service | Simone Peruzzo, Consorzio RFX | Mauro Pavei, Consorzio RFX | Marco Siragusa, Consorzio RFX | Pierluigi Zaccaria, Consorzio RFX
In the framework of ITER Project, aiming to build a fusion device for demonstrating the feasibility of fusion power, a new test facility is under construction in Padua to host the MITICA experiment, a full scale prototype of ITER Neutral Beam injector.
The MITICA Vacuum Vessel is constituted by two contiguous vacuum chambers, the Beam Source Vessel (BSV) and the Beam Line Vessel, which will contain the main components of the experimental device. The chambers are made of AISI304L, with overall dimensions of 15m x 6m x 5m.
During the vessel construction an assessment of the welding configuration initially proposed for the manufacture of the BSV has been performed, showing potential structural issues which suggested a modification in progress of the welding procedures.
This paper describes the analytical assessment carried out in order to identify the critical areas and the possible solutions to be implemented and the FE analyses for the structural verifications according to ASME code.
Predictive Maintenance for bus fleets: a lesson from the EBSF_2 project
Maria Vittoria Corazza, DICEA – Dept. of Civil Engineering Sapienza University of Rome | Enrico Petracci, Pluservice srl | Silvia Magnalardo, Pluservice | Michele Tozzi, UITP - International Association of Public Transport Brussels
The paper deals with an innovative Predictive Maintenance (PdM) system to assess the quality of the engine oil for buses, tested in Ravenna within the European Bus System of the Future - EBSF_2 project, funded by the European Union. The system relies on a PdM software linked to oil sensors and filters, installed on a test fleet, and on an IT architecture, specifically designed. The system enables a continuous assessment of the oil quality, which is highly predictive of the engine performance, thus detecting potential breakdowns and planning the replacement of spare parts ahead of regular schedules; the system also detects which substances and problems cause the poor quality of the oil. The paper describes the system and its IT architecture, the testing scenarios, the performance assessment, and the main outcomes. Thus far, results are encouraging and enable an assessment of additional, potential environmental benefits (especially mitigation of emissions toxicity and improvement of waste management). Such results are analysed and commented with the research objective to provide advanced knowledge for further research studies beyond EBSF_2
FMI: an enabling technology for digital twin development
Filippo Furlan, EnginSoft SpA
The FMI (Functional Mock-up Interface) is a standard that provides a set of interfaces for model exchange and co-simulation of dynamic models across different tools. It is an important task for designing, testing, and integrating different domain parts to describe the behavior of the overall system. The main advantages of this approach are to (i) identify potential issues with real machine counterpart throughout the life of the machine; (ii) enable advanced strategies for compensating for decreased performance without slowing or stopping production; (iii) represent a way for the integration of a real-time implementation of the Digital Twin (high-fidelity models) since it can be run in-line with the real machine; (iv) accelerate commissioning process, reduce risks and decrease costs.
In this talk, after an introduction of the FMI and Digital Twin technologies we present a case study regarding the use of FMI capabilities available in MapleSim thought the MapleSim Connector for FMI.
Fatigue and vibration analyses of a chainsaw using a design chain approach
Antonio Lauciello, Emak SpA | Elio De Marinis, EnginSoft SpA
This work presents how MapleSim and ANSYS WorkBench have been successfully integrated within EMAK design chain for fatigue and vibration analyses, exploiting the best in class features of both modeling and simulation tools. The chainsaw design starts with a multibody model created in MapleSim, that allows to learn about the excitings of the engine during the operating cycle at counter. All the peculiarities of the 2T engine have been modeled.
The N resulting excitings are collected and then analyzed with a template in Maple to reduce the frequency content through the DFT study; a time reconstruction is also performed to verify that the new signal is consistent with the original one exporting it to an appropriate format. In ANSYS WB a model of the machine has been created trying to validate experimentally all of its aspects (modal shapes, rigidity, damping). An harmonic analysis is performed using N excitings with Maple, followed by a‘rainflow’ calculation on all components involved in fatigue study.
Wettability models in pool boiling numerical simulation
Marco Marengo, University of Brighton | Anastasios Georgoulas, University of Brighton | Joël Joël De Coninck, Laboratoire de Physique des Surfaces et Interfaces
Improving the performances of agricultural equipment using simulation
Nicola Petrone, University of Padova | Natalino Dorigutto, Maschio Gaspardo SpA | Fabiano Maggio, EnginSoft SpA
The world of the agricultural equipment extends from simple implements to large and complex self-propelled machines. While the latter have always been treated with automotive standards in terms of research and development, for the low to mid end products the objectives have constantly been short times to market and effective cost-saving measures, even at the expense of final quality.
Maschio Gaspardo wants to disprove this paradigm, showing that the implementation of advanced technologies (like in-depth FEM analyses) for agricultural machines is feasible and convenient even on products previously overlooked, leading to improved performances.
To do this, a partnership has been established with the University of Padova: the pilot project of this cooperation will be presented in this paper. Focused on sprayer booms, the study will show the steps leading to a revised and improved version of these components, used to spray chemicals on fields and crops and therefore crucial for the safety of the environment and the quality of the harvest.
ModeFRONTIER: a centrifugal compressor stage study
Efficiency of industrial machines is increasing in importance to reduce the imprint on the environment resources. Centrifugal compressors are industrial machines under a demand for continuous improvement to reduce the power expended during the gas compression.
The aerodynamic characteristics of the compressor stage parts are affecting the power needed for the gas compression. Using the latest available modeling and simulation software, it has been possible to improve a centrifugal stage efficiency (inlet-impeller-diffuser-volute system) by reducing the simulation and testing time.
One interesting aspect of this work has been the flexibility to easily modify the design parameters typically managed through different software and to study the relative effects at the same time. A well-established in-house design process has been completely changed revealing new aspects and design areas to be considered and explored. It is also of great interest the possibility to calculate a considerable number of different scenarios and through some of them to reach different goals or to divert the analysis in unexpected areas.
Advanced Engineering Solutions
Tolerance Analysis Techniques for Flexible Components
Manufacturers spend large amounts of money on product quality issues such as parts not fitting together properly, scrap, and rework. Tolerance variation in rigid body assemblies results from three sources: size, form and kinematics. Tolerance analysis software solutions such as CETOL from Sigmetrix, VisVSA from Siemens PLM and 3DCS from Dassault Systemes are effective for rigid body assemblies and are fully integrated within the major CAD tools such as PTC/CREO, NX and CATIA respectively.
Flexible body assemblies exhibit an additional source of variation, such as the deformation of the components due to assembly forces or temperature loading during manufacturing. Flexible assemblies, composed of slender parts or sheet metal components can deform substantially from their nominal geometric shape.
This paper will present techniques that perform tolerance analysis on assemblies with flexible components within the CAD and CAE environments.
Advanced Engineering Solutions
Efficiency Assessment of Heat Exchangers with Gyroid Topology
Minimal Surface Lattice structures based upon the gyroid topology have been one of nature's time-tested patterns. Callophrys Rubi butterflies and calcite particles use gyroids for light weight structural members. New in fill capabilities in ANSYS SpaceClaim and Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) empowers designers to create nature-inspired gyroid components. The nature of gyroid topology to separate the domain in two different independent spaces enables the generation of efficient heat exchangers. A model generation and the results of a CFD study of triply periodic gyroid heat exchangers will be presented.
Using simulation and analysis tools to improve the bottom line
Industry-leading companies facing increased competition, more complex designs, and shorter design cycles are finding that increased use of simulation software allows them to better achieve their product availability, quality, and profitability objectives. Join Chris Wilkes as he presents the results of a recent survey of design teams worldwide to see how they use various simulation tools to achieve their business objectives. Topics to be presented include:
• What types of simulation software are being used
• Which types offer the most benefits
• The impact on time to market
• The impact on the number of prototypes used
• The challenges to increased adoption of simulation tools
You’ll learn how others are benefiting from simulation and analysis tools while overcoming the challenges associated with their increased usage.
CYBERNET SYSTEMS CO., LTD
Multiscale FEM analysis system embedded in ANSYS Workbench using ACT technique
Kenjiro Terada, Tohoku University | Norio Hirayama, Nihon University
Multiscale analysis based on homogenization theory is an important technique that enables to get an-isotropic material properties of non-homogeneous media without real material testing. Examples of non-homogeneous media are porous, metallographic structure, honeycomb and especially composite which is GFRP, CFRP and so on.
We have developed this analysis system and embedded in ANSYS Workbench GUI using ACT (ANSYS Customization Toolkit). The tool name is CMAS (Cybernet Multiscale Analysis System). It will be released to ANSYS user's web site this year.
In this talk, the function of developed Multiscale analysis system and some analysis examples are presented.